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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: dēg-   'to take, grab, pack?'

Semantic Fields: to Take; to Grasp, Seize, Take Hold of

 

Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
English  
Old English: tacan, tōc, tōcon, tacen vb.str to take W7/ASD
Middle English: mistaken vb to mistake W7
  taken vb to take W7
English: mistake, mistook, mistaken vb.str to choose wrongly AHD/W7
  take, took, taken vb.str to grasp, seize, get power/control/possession of IEW/W7
  weapontake n arming of Rohan in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
W-Germanic  
Middle Dutch: taken vb to take W7
N-Germanic  
Old Norse: mistaka vb to mistake, take wrongly W7
  taka, tōk vb.str to take, capture IEW/ASD
Icelandic: taka vb to take ASD
Norwegian: taka vb to take CDC
Danish: tage vb to take CDC
  undtagen prep except TLL
Swedish: taga vb to take CDC
E-Germanic  
Gothic: tēkan vb to take, touch IEW
Tocharian  
Tocharian B: tak-/tek- vb to take, touch IEW

 

Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
n=noun
prep=preposition
str=strong (inflection)
vb=verb

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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