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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. dei-, dei̯ə-, dī-, di̯ā-   'to shine, glitter; day, sun; god, deity'

Semantic Fields: to Shine, Glisten; Day; Sun; God

 

Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Celtic  
Old Irish: dïa/dïe n day GED
  dīa n god GED
  tre̐-denus adv for 3 days GED
English  
Old English: Julius prop.n July, Julius W7
  Tīg/Tīw prop.n Tiu; (name for) T-rune GED
  tī(r) n Tyr; (name for) T-rune GED
  Tīwes-dæg prop.n Tuesday GED
Middle English: adieu n adieu W7
  ajournen vb to adjourn W7
  deitee n deity W7
  dial n dial W7
  diurnal adj diurnal W7
  Dives prop.n Dives, rich man depicted in Luke 16:19-31 W7
  divin(e) n/adj divine W7
  divinen vb to divine W7
  journal n journal W7
  journey n journey, a day's labor W7
  journeyman n journeyman W7
  Julie prop.n July W7
  meridian n meridian W7
English: adieu n farewell AHD/W7
  adjourn vb to suspend indefinitely/until stated time AHD/W7
  circadian adj re: circa 1-day periodicity AHD
  deific adj deifying, making divine AHD/CDC
  deify vb.trans to make god, treat as god W7
  deism n doctrine: God is distinct/separated from world AHD/CDC
  deity n divinity, rank/essential nature of god/supreme being AHD/W7
  Deus prop.n God AHD
  Devanagari prop.n script used to write Sanskrit/other Indian languages LRC
  Devi prop.n mother goddess, consort to Shiva (Hinduism) AHD
  dial n face of sundial AHD/W7
  Diana prop.n grove/fountain goddess (Roman mythology) AHD/CDC
  diary n journal, record of events/observations kept daily/at frequent intervals AHD/W7
  diet n formal assembly of princes/estates AHD/W7
  Dione prop.n mother of Aphrodite (Greek mythology) AHD
  Dis prop.n god of underworld (Roman mythology) AHD
  diurnal adj recurring every day AHD/W7
  diva n prima donna AHD/W7
  Dives prop.n [incorrectly used name for] antagonist in N.T. parable of Lazarus and Dives AHD/W7
  divine adj re: directly from deity AHD/W7
  divine n clergyman AHD/W7
  divine vb to infer, discover intuitively AHD/W7
  joss n Chinese idol/cult image AHD/W7
  journal n record of current transactions AHD/W7
  journey n trip, travel/passage from place to place AHD/W7
  journeyman n tradesman who works day-to-day W7
  Jove prop.n Jupiter (Roman mythology) LRC
  Julian prop.n male given name; calendar introduced by Julius Caesar W7
  Julius prop.n male given name LRC
  July prop.n 7th month (in Gregorian calendar) AHD/W7
  meridian n midday, hour of noon AHD/W7
  postmeridian adj occurring after noon AHD/W7
  psychedelic adj re: hallucinatory distortion of perception AHD
  Tiu prop.n god of war/sky (Germanic mythology) LRC
  Tuesday prop.n lit. Tiu's day LRC
  Tyr prop.n god of war/sky (Norse mythology) LRC
  Zeus prop.n father of gods/men (Greek mythology) LRC
W-Germanic  
Old High German: Zios-tac prop.n Tuesday GED
  Ziu(o) prop.n name of a god, letter ASD
N-Germanic  
Runic: *Tiwaz n Tiu, Tyr; (name for) T-rune LRC
Old Norse: Teitr prop.n.masc Teit LRC
  teitr adj merry, cheerful, frolicsome LRC
  Tȳr prop.n Tyr W7
Old Icelandic: teitr adj glowing, cheerful GED
  tȳr n (name for) T-rune GED
Icelandic: Týr prop.n Tyr; (name for) T-rune ASD
E-Germanic  
Gothic: *sin-teins adj daily GED
  tyz n (name for) T-rune GED
Italic  
Oscan: Diúveí prop.n Jove LRC
Old Latin: Diovis/Jovis prop.n Jove LRC
Latin: dea, deae n.fem goddess LRC
  deus, dei n.masc god LRC
  Deus prop.n.masc God W7
  diarium n.neut day's allowance of food/pay W7
  diēs, diēi n.masc day GED
  diurnalis adj diurnal, of the day W7
  diurnus adj during the day W7
  dīva n.fem diva W7
  dīvēs n.masc rich man; Pluto W7
  dīvīnō, dīvīnāre vb to tell fortune W7
  dīvīnus adj/n.masc divine, of the Gods; seer, soothsayer W7
  dīvus adj godlike, divine W7
  Julius prop.n.masc Julius, Gaius Caesar (from family of Julii) W7
  Julius prop.n.masc July, 5th month (in Julian calendar) W7
  Juppiter, Jovis prop.n.masc Jupiter, lit. bright-father W7
  medius adj in the middle W7
  meridianus adj of midday, southern W7
  meridies n.masc noon, south W7
  nun-dinum n market held every 9th day GED
  postmeridianus adj postmeridian W7
Late Latin: deitas, dietatis n.fem divine nature W7
Medieval Latin: dieta n.fem day's journey, assembly W7
  divinus adj of God W7
Portuguese: deus n.masc god W7
  dia n day TLL
Old French: ajourner vb to adjourn AHD
  jour n.masc day W7
  journee n.fem day W7
Middle French: adieu interj adieu, farewell W7
  ajourner vb to adjourn W7
  deité n.masc deity, divinity, god W7
  divin adj of God W7
  diviner vb to guess, tell fortune W7
  journal adj daily W7
  méridien adj of noon W7
French: jour n.masc day W7
Italian: diva n.fem goddess; actress, opera singer W7/CID
Baltic  
Old Prussian: deinan n.acc day GED
  deiwas n god GED
Lithuanian: dìdis, didì adj great LRC
  dienà n.fem day LRC
  diẽvas n.masc god LRC
Latvian: dìena n.fem day GED
  dievins n.masc god LRC
  dievs n.masc god LRC
Slavic  
Old Church Slavonic: dьnь n.masc day LRC
Albanian  
Albanian: diell n.masc sun LRC
  ditë n day GED
  gdhin vb to pass a sleepless night GED
Hellenic  
Mycenaean: δι-ωε n day/god LRC
Homeric Greek: δη̃λος adj clear, evident GED
  Ζευ̃ς prop.n.masc Zeus, lit. day/god LRC
Attic: δη̃λος adj visible GED
Greek: δέατο vb to appear GED
  δη̃λος adj clear, obvious LRC
  δηλόω vb to reveal, be clear LRC
  δι̃ος adj godlike, noble LRC
  Ζεύς prop.n.masc Zeus IEW
Anatolian  
Luwian: Tiwat- prop.n sun god LRC
Hittite: Sius prop.n sun god LRC
Palaic: Tiyaz prop.n sun god LRC
Armenian  
Armenian: tiw n day LRC
Iranian  
Avestan: daēva- n demon LRC
Indic  
Sanskrit: dínam n day GED
  dī́deti vb to shine GED
  devanāgarī n Devanagari W7
  dévas n god GED
  dyáus n sky, heavens LRC

 

Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
acc=accusative (case)
adj=adjective
adv=adverb(ial)
fem=feminine (gender)
interj=interjection
masc=masculine (gender)
n=noun
neut=neuter (gender)
prop=proper
trans=transitive
vb=verb

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
CID=Cassell's Italian Dictionary (1958)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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