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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 3. del-, dol-, delə-   'to split, divide'

Semantic Fields: to Split; to Divide


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: be-teldan, be-teald, be-tuldon, be-tolden vb.str.III to cover, surround, overwhelm RPN/ASD
  teld n tent RPN
  teldian vb to pitch (a tent) RPN
  telgor/telgra n twig, shoot W7
Middle English: dol n dole W7
  dolour n dolor W7
  tiller n tiller W7
  tilten/tulten vb to tilt W7
English: condole vb to grieve AHD/W7
  dolabriform adj shaped like ax/cleaver AHD/CDC
  dole n grief, sorrow AHD/W7
  dolor n sorrow, anguish, mental suffering AHD/W7
  indolent adj causing little/no pain AHD/W7
  tiller n stalk, sprout AHD/W7
  tilt vb to incline, cause to slope AHD/W7
Middle Low German: telt n tent RPN
Old High German: zelga n twig W7
  zelt n.neut tent, vault, canopy, pavilion RPN/ASD
  zelto n small flat cake RPN
German: Zelt n.neut tent, pavilion LRC
  Zelte(n) n.dial small flat cake RPN
Old Icelandic: tjald n tent RPN
  tjalda vb to pitch (a tent) RPN
Icelandic: tjald n.neut tent ASD
  tjalda vb to spread, stretch, cover ASD
  tjálgr n.masc prong ASD
Danish: telt n.neut tent, pavilion ASD
Swedish: tulta vb to waddle W7
Latin: dolens adj/vb.ptc grieving, feeling pain W7
  doleō, dolēre, doluī, dolitum vb to grieve, suffer, be angry LRC
  dolor n.masc pain W7
Late Latin: condoleo, condolēre vb to sympathize with W7
  dolus n.masc fraud, injury W7
  indolens, indolentis adj insensitive to pain W7
Old French: dol n.masc injury, damage W7
Middle French: dolour n.fem dolor, pain W7
Lithuanian: dalìs n.fem part LRC
Latvian: dilt, dilstu, dilu vb to wane, decrease, dwindle LRC
Greek: daidalos adj ingeniously formed W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
III=class 3
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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