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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: deph-   'to push, stamp, thrust'

Semantic Fields: to Push, Shove; to Press


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Middle English: letter n letter W7
  literal adj literal W7
English: alliterate vb to form/make alliteration AHD/W7
  alliteration n repetition of initial (usu. consonant) sounds in neighboring words/syllables AHD/W7
  diphtheria n acute febrile contagious desease AHD/W7
  illiterate adj unlettered, having little/no education AHD/W7
  letter n written/printed symbol representing speech sound AHD/W7
  literal adj according with letter(s) of scripture AHD/W7
  literatim adv letter-for-letter AHD/W7
  obliterate vb.trans to make undecipherable/imperceptible by obscuring/wearing away AHD/W7
  transliterate vb.trans to spell/represent in letters of another alphabet AHD/W7
Latin: illiteratus adj illiterate W7
  littera n.fem letter of the alphabet W7
  litterae epistle, literature W7
  litteralis adj of a letter W7
  litteratus adj marked with letters, literate W7
  oblittero, oblitterare, oblitteravi, oblitteratus vb to cancel, blot out W7
Medieval Latin: literatim adv literatim, literally W7
  litteralis adj literal, of letters W7
New Latin: diphtheria n.fem diphteria W7
Old French: lettre n.fem letter (of the alphabet) W7
Middle French: literal adj literal W7
French: diphthérie n.fem diphteria W7
Greek: diphthera n.fem leather W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
pl=plural (number)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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