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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 3. der-, drā-, dreb-, drem-, dreu-   'to run, trip, tread, tramp'

Semantic Fields: to Run; to Walk; to Drop; Foot


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: tredan, træd, trǣdon, treden vb.str to tread GED/ASD
  treddan vb.wk to tread, trample GED/ASD
  treddian vb.wk to tread GED
  tredel n.masc step, sole GED/ASD
  trem/trym n.neut step GED
  treppan vb to tread W7
  treppe n.fem trap W7
  trod(u) n.neut/fem track GED
Middle English: dromedarie n dromedary W7
  dromond n dromond W7
  titeren vb to totter, reel W7
  trade n trade W7
  trampen vb to tramp W7
  tramplen vb.freq to trample W7
  trap n snare, pitfall W7
  tredel n treadle, stairstep W7
  treden vb to tread W7
  trippen vb to trip W7
  trot n trot W7
English: anadromous adj ascending rivers from sea for breeding AHD/W7
  -drome n.sfx field, (race)course, arena AHD
  dromedary n speedy camel, bred/trained for riding AHD/W7
  dromond n large fast medieval galley/cutter AHD/W7
  -dromous adj.sfx running AHD/W7
  entrap vb.trans to catch (as if) in trap AHD/W7
  loxodrome n rhumb line AHD/W2I
  palindrome n text spelled the same backward/forward AHD/W7
  prodromal adj precursory, marked by prodromes W7
  prodrome n premonitory symptom of disease AHD/W7
  teeter vb.intrans to wobble, move unsteadily AHD/W7
  trade n way, path traversed AHD/W7
  tramp vb to walk/tread/step (esp. heavily) AHD/W7
  trample vb to tramp repeatedly IEW
  trampoline n resilient canvas web/sheet held in frame by springs AHD/W7
  trap n snare/device for taking game/other animals AHD/W7
  trap n fine-grained igneous rocks (e.g. basalt/amygdaloid) AHD/W7
  tread, trod, trodden vb.str to step/walk on/over AHD/W7
  treadle n swiveling lever pressed by foot to drive machine AHD/W7
  trip vb to skip/dance/caper with quick light steps AHD/W7
  troll n giant inhabiting hills/caves (Teutonic folklore) W7
  troll-fells n rocky troll locale in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  trot n moderately fast gait (legs of quadruped move in diagonal pairs) AHD/W7
  wentletrap n marine snail with white shell AHD/W7
Old Frisian: treda vb.str to tread, trample upon GED
  treppe n step ASD
Middle Dutch: trappe n.fem trap, stair W7
  treden vb.str to tread GED
  wendeltrappe n winding stair W7
Dutch: trap n stairs TLL
  trappen vb to tread, trample ASD
  wenteltrap n winding stair W7
Old Saxon: trada n track, treading GED
Old Low German: tredan/tretan vb to tread (down), trample upon ASD
Middle Low German: trade n track, treading GED
  trampen vb to tramp, stamp W7
  trappe n.fem trap, stair W7
  treden vb.str to tread GED
Old High German: trapo n.fem trap ASD
  trata n track, course, treading GED
  tretan vb.str to tread GED
  trettōn vb to tread, trample upon ASD
  trota n.wk.fem wine-press GED
  trotōn vb.wk to press GED
  trottōn vb to tread W7
  zittarōn vb to shiver, tremble GED
Middle High German: treten vb.str to tread GED
  trol(le) n.masc troll, goblin, monster IEW
  trot(t)e n.wk.fem wine-press GED
German: Trampolin n.fem trampoline LRC
  Treppe n.fem step, stairs, staircase ASD
  treten vb to tread LRC
  trotten vb to trot LRC
Old Norse: troll n.neut troll, fiend, demon, monster IEW/W7
  trolldómr n witchcraft OED
Old Icelandic: (a-)troð n treading GED
  titra vb to tremble GED
  treðja vb to tread upon, trample GED
  troða, trað vb.str to tread GED
  trǫð n.fem cow-pen, fenced lane GED
Icelandic: tratta vb to tread (under foot), trample upon ASD
  troð n.neut treading ASD
  troða vb to tread (down), trample upon ASD
Norwegian: troll n troll, dwarf W7
Danish: trappe n stairs TLL
  trold n troll, imp, dwarf W7/OED
Swedish: trapp(a) n step, stair W7
  troll n troll, imp, dwarf OED
  trolla vb to charm, bewitch OED
Gothic: ga-trudan vb.str.IV to tread down GED
  trudan vb.str.IV to tread, trample upon GED
Late Latin: dromo, dromonis n.masc light ship W7
New Latin: -dromus sfx -dromous, re: running W7
Spanish: trampolín n.masc trampoline W7
Middle French: dromedaire n.masc dromedary W7
  dromont n.masc dromond W7
  entraper vb to entrap W7
  trape n.fem trap W7
  trot n.masc trot W7
French: prodrome n.masc ensemble of symptoms leading up to the development of a medical condition W7
  trottoir n sidewalk LRC
Homeric Greek: δρόμος n.masc race, course, running GED
Greek: anadramein vb to run upward W7
  anadromos adj running upward W7
  (ἀπο-)διδρᾱ́σκω vb to escape GED
  δραμει̃ν vb to run GED
  dromas adj running W7
  drómos n.masc run, race, course W7
  dromōn n.masc race W7
  palindromos adj running back again W7
  πρό-δρομος adj prodromal, running forward/in advance LS
Sanskrit: drámati vb to run about GED
  drávati vb to run GED
  drā́ti vb to run, gallop GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
IV=class 4
fem=feminine (gender)
freq=frequentative (aspect)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
LS=Liddell and Scott: Greek-English Lexicon, 7th-9th ed's (1882-1940), rev.
OED=James A.H. Murray et al: The Oxford English Dictionary (1933)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W2I=Webster's New International Dictionary of the English Language, 2nd ed. (1959)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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