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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. deu-, or dou- : du-   'to worship, venerate; mighty'

Semantic Fields: to Worship; Strong, Mighty, Powerful


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: geatwe arms, equipment W7/ASD
  here-geatwe military equipment W7
  tawian vb to prepare for use W7
  tōl n tool W7
  tow- pfx spinning W7
Middle English: beatitude n beatitude AHD
  beaute/bewty n beauty W7/MEV
  beldam n grandmother, old woman W7
  benediccioun n benediction W7
  benefactor n benefactor AHD
  benefice n benefice W7
  benefit n benefit W7
  bon n bone W7
  bonie adj bonny W7
  bounte n bounty, goodness, excellence W7
  debonere adj debonair W7
  embelisshen vb to embellish W7
  heriot n heriot W7
  tawen vb to taw, tan W7
  tool n tool W7
  tow n tow W7
English: aerodyne n heavier-than-air aircraft AHD
  beatify vb.trans to make supremely happy AHD/W7
  beatitude n state of utmost bliss AHD/W7
  beau n dandy AHD/W7
  beauty n loveliness, quality that gives pleasure AHD/W7
  beldam n old woman AHD/W7
  belle n popular attractive girl/woman AHD/W7
  bene- pfx good, helpful TLL
  benediction n invocation of blessing AHD/W7
  benefaction n good deed, act of benefitting AHD/W7
  benefactor n one who makes gift/bequest AHD
  benefic adj beneficent AHD/W7
  benefice n eccesiastical office with endowment revenue AHD/W7
  beneficence n state/quality of doing/producing good AHD/W7
  benefit n act of kindness AHD/W7
  benevolent adj re: benevolence, good intentions AHD
  bonanza n large/rich ore vein carrying gold/silver AHD/W7
  bonbon n candy with chocolate coating, fondant center AHD/W7
  bonito n type of medium-sized tuna AHD/W7
  bonny adj fine, attractive, handsome AHD/W7
  bonus n something given, beyond what is usual/strictly due AHD/W7
  boon adj benign, bounteous AHD/W7
  bounty n generosity, liberality in giving AHD/W7
  debonair adj gentle, courteous AHD/W7
  dynamic adj re: physical force/energy AHD/W7
  dynamite n powerful explosive based on nitroglycerin AHD/CDC
  dynast n ruler AHD/W7
  dynasty n succession of sovereigns from same line/family AHD/CDC
  embellish vb.trans to decorate, make beautiful with ornamentation AHD/W7
  heriot n feudal duty/tribute due to lord upon death of tenant AHD/W7
  heterodyne adj re: (waves) being unmatched producing beats TLL
  taw vb.trans to tan with alum/salt, convert skin into leather AHD/W7
  tool n implement, instrument (e.g. hammer) used/worked by hand AHD/W7
  tow n short broken fiber(s) of flax/hemp/jute AHD/W7
Middle High German: zwīden vb to grant W7
Old Norse:  n tuft of wool for spinning W7
  tól n.neut tool LRC
Icelandic: tól tools ASD
Gothic: taujan vb.wk.I to do, make LRC
  tiuhan vb.str.II to lead, guide LRC
Latin: beatitudo n beatitude W7
  beatus adj happy W7
  bellus adj pretty W7
  bene adv well W7
  benefacio, benefacere vb to do a service AHD/CLD
  beneficentia n.fem beneficence, good deeds W7
  beneficium n.neut favor, benefit W7
  beneficus adj generous, liberal, beneficient W7
  beo, beare vb to bless, enrich, make happy AHD/CLD
  bonitas, bonitatis n.fem goodness W7
  bonus adj good W7
  dynastes n.masc dynast, ruler, prince W7
Vulgar Latin: *bellitās n beauty AHD
Late Latin: beatifico, beatificāre vb to beatify W7
  benedico, benedicere, benedixi, benedictus vb to bless W7
  benedictio, benedictionis n.fem blessing, benediction W7
  benefactio, benefactionis n.fem benefaction W7
  benefactor n benefactor AHD
Medieval Latin: beneficium n.neut benefice W7
  bonacia n.fem calm at sea W7
Spanish: bonanza n.fem calm at sea W7
  bonito adj pretty W7
Old French: beatitude n beatitude AHD
  beauté/biauté n.fem beauty MEV/W7
  bel, biau adj beautiful W7
  benedicion n benediction AHD
  benefice n benefice AHD
  benevolent adj benevolent AHD
  bienfait n benefit, good deed AHD
  bon adj good W7
  bonté n.fem bounty, goodness, excellence W7
  debonaire adj debonair, benevolent, re: goodwill W7
Anglo-French: benfet n.masc benefit, benefaction W7
Middle French: beatifier vb to beatify W7
  bel adj beautiful W7
  benefice n.masc benefit; benefice W7
  bon adj good W7
  embelir, embeliss- vb to embellish W7
French: beatifier vb to beatify AHD
  beau adj fine, beautiful W7
  belle adj.fem fine, beautiful W7
  bon adj good W7
  bonbon n.masc candy W7
  dynamique adj dynamic, moving W7
Italian: benchè conj although TLL
Greek: ἀδύνατος adj impossible LRC
  δύναμαι vb.dep to be able LRC
  dynamikos adj powerful W7
  δύναμις n.fem power LRC
  dynastēs n.masc dynast W7
  δυνατός n.neut possible LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
I=class 1
II=class 2
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
CLD=Cassell's Latin Dictionary (1959, rev. 1968)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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