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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

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Pokorny Etymon: dl̥kú-   'sweet, dulcet'

Semantic Field: Sweet


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Middle English: doucet adj dulcet W7
English: billet-doux n love letter AHD/W7
  dolce adj smooth, soft AHD/W7
  douceur n amiability AHD/W7
  dulcet adj sweet in taste AHD/W7
  dulcify vb.trans to make sweet AHD/W7
  glucose n sugar, in various forms AHD/W7
  glycerin n glycerol: sweet syrupy alcohol AHD/W7
German: Glyzerin n.neut glycerin LRC
Latin: dulcis adj soft, dulcet W7
Late Latin: dulcifico, dulcificāre vb to dulcify, make softer W7
  dulcor n.fem sweetness W7
Middle French: doucet adj dulcet W7
  douz adj sweet, dulcet W7
French: douceur n.fem softness W7
  doux adj sweet, dulcet TLL
  glucose n.masc glucose W7
  glycérine n.fem glycerin W7
Italian: dolce adj dulcet, charming, pleasant W7/CID
Greek: γλευ̃κος n.neut new/sweet wine LRC
  glykeros adj sweet W7
  glykys adj sweet, soft W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
CID=Cassell's Italian Dictionary (1958)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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