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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: dn̥g̑hū, dn̥g̑hu̯ā   'tongue'

Semantic Field: Tongue


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: tengae n tongue GED
Middle Breton: teaut n tongue GED
Old Cornish: tauot n tongue GED
Middle Welsh: tauawt n tongue GED
Old English: tunge n.wk.fem tongue GED
  wyrm-tunge n.wk.fem bitter-spoken person LRC
Middle English: language n language W7
  languet n languet W7
  tunge n tongue W7
English: bilingual adj re: two tongues/languages AHD/W7
  biltong n jerked meat AHD/W7
  language n community use of vocal sounds/written symbols to communicate AHD/W7
  languet n something resembling tongue in form/function AHD/W7
  ligula n strap-shaped/tongue-like structure (esp. in insects) AHD
  ligule n scale-like plant projection AHD/W7
  lingo n strange/incomprehensible speech/language AHD/W7
  lingua n tongue, tongue-like organ AHD
  linguine/linguini n long, flat, thin pasta strand(s) AHD
  linguist n language specialist AHD
  linguistic adj re: language LRC
  linguistics n study of language(s) LRC
  tongue n fleshy movable sensory organ of lower jaw AHD/W7
  Wormtongue prop.n epithet for Grima in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Old Frisian: tunge n.wk.fem tongue GED
Middle Dutch: tonghe n tongue AHD
Dutch: tong n tongue TLL
Afrikaans: biltong n biltong W7
  tong n tongue W7
Old Saxon: tunga n.wk.fem tongue GED
Old Low German: tunga n.fem tongue ASD
Old High German: zunga n.wk.fem tongue GED
German: Zunge n.fem tongue LRC
Old Norse: tunga n.wk.fem tongue LRC
Old Icelandic: tunga n.wk.fem tongue GED
Icelandic: tunga n.fem tongue ASD
Danish: tunge n tongue TLL
Swedish: tunga n tongue TLL
Gothic: tuggo n.fem tongue GED
Old Latin: dingua n tongue GED
Latin: bilinguis adj bilingual W7
  ligula n.fem.dim small tongue, strap W7
  lingua, linguae n.fem tongue, language LRC
New Latin: ligula n.fem.dim part of insect's labium W7
Old French: langua n.fem tongue, language W7
  language n.masc language W7
Middle French: langue n.fem tongue W7
  languete n.fem.dim small tongue W7
Provençal: lingo n.masc tongue W7
Italian: linguina n.dim small tongue AHD
Lithuanian: liežùvis n tongue GED
Old Church Slavonic: językъ n.masc tongue, language, nation LRC
Classical Armenian: lezu n tongue, language LRC
Tocharian B: käntwā n tongue GED
Tocharian A: käntu tongues GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
pl=plural (number)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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