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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: dō- : də-, also dō-u- : dəu- : du-   'to give, donate'

Semantic Field: to Give

 

Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
English  
Middle English: antidot n antidote W7
  betrayen vb to betray W7
  date n date W7
  datif adj dative W7
  dee n die W7
  donatyowne n donation W7
  dowarie n dowry W7
  dowere n dower W7
  endowen vb to endow W7
  pardonen vb to pardon W7
  rendren vb to render W7
  rente n rent W7
  surrenderen vb to surrender W7
  tradicious n tradition W7
  traitre n traitor W7
  trayen vb to betray W7
  tresoun n treason W7
English: anecdote n short story of amusing/interesting/biographical incident AHD/W7
  antidote n remedy to effects of poison AHD/W7
  apodosis n main clause of conditional sentence AHD/W7
  betray vb to lead astray AHD/W7
  condone vb.trans to pardon/overlook voluntarily AHD/W7
  dacha n Russian country house AHD/W7
  dado n part of column pedestal between base/surbase AHD/W7
  date n day/time when event occurs AHD/W7
  dative adj (grammatical case) re: verb's indirect object/preposition's object AHD/W7
  datum n something given/admitted as basis for reasoning/inference AHD/W7
  die n one among set of dice AHD/W7
  donate vb to give, contribute, make a gift W7
  donation n gift/action of giving to charity/institution AHD/W7
  donative adj re: donation AHD/W7
  donor n one who gives/donates/presents AHD/W7
  dose n amount of therapeutic agent taken at one time AHD/W7
  dot n dowry AHD/W7
  dowager n widow holding title/property received from late husband AHD/W7
  dower n part of/interest in deceased husband's estate given to widow AHD/W7
  dowry n dower AHD/W7
  edition n form in which text (e.g. book) is published AHD/W7
  endow vb.trans to furnish with dower AHD/W7
  epidote n yellowish green mineral, silicate of iron/calcium/aluminum AHD/W7
  Pandora prop.n woman who, given box by Zeus with instructions not to open it, opened it and released all human ills (Greek mythology) LRC
  pardon vb.trans to free from penalty AHD/W7
  quitrent n rent paid in lieu of required services AHD
  render vb to try, melt down AHD/W7
  rent n property (e.g. house) rented/for rent; periodic sum paid to landlord by tenant AHD/W7
  surrender vb to yield to another's power AHD/W7
  tradition n handing down of custom or belief to future generations AHD/W7
  traitor n one who betrays trust, is false to duty/obligation AHD/W7
  treason n treachery, perfidy, betrayal of trust AHD/W7
  vend vb to sell, exchange via sale AHD/W7
W-Germanic  
German: Dativ n.masc dative LRC
  Datum n.neut date LRC
  Dosis n.fem dose LRC
Italic  
Latin: antidotum n.neut antidote W7
  condono, condonare vb to forgive W7
  dativus n.masc dative (case) W7
  deditus, dedita, deditum adj devoted, addicted LRC
  dō, dare, dedī, datus vb to give, furnish, deliver RPN
  -do, -dere, -didi, -ditus vb.sfx to give W7
  dōnātio, dōnātiōnis n.fem gift, donation W7
  dōnātīvus n.masc gift to soldiers W7
  dōnātor n.masc donor W7
  dōnō, dōnāre, dōnāvī, dōnātus vb to give, donate W7
  dōnum n.neut gift W7
  dōs, dōtis n.fem dowry W7
  dōtō, dōtāre vb to endow, give a dowry W7
  editio, editionis n.fem edition, publication W7
  ēdō, ēdere, edidi, editus vb to bring forth, produce, publish W7
  Pandora n.fem Pandora W7
  reddō, reddere vb to give back W7
  traditio, traditionis n.fem action of handing over, tradition W7
  traditor n.masc traitor W7
  trādō, trādere, trādidī, trāditus vb to betray, deliver, transmit W7
  vēndō, vēndere vb to sell, give for sale W7
Vulgar Latin: rendita n.fem income from property W7
  rendo, rendere, rendidi, renditus vb to yield, give back W7
Late Latin: apodosis n apodosis AHD
  perdonō, perdonāre vb to grant freely W7
Medieval Latin: dotarium n.neut dowry W7
Old French: rente n.fem income from a property W7
  traïr vb to betray W7
  traison n.fem treason W7
  traitre n.masc traitor W7
Anglo-French: dowarie n.fem dowry W7
  endouer vb to endow W7
Middle French: date n.fem date W7
   n.masc die W7
  doneur n.masc donor W7
  douage n.fem dower W7
  douagiere adj dowager W7
  douaire n.masc dowry of a (former) queen W7
  douer vb to endow W7
  edition n.fem edition W7
  pardoner vb to forgive W7
  rendre vb to yield, give back W7
  surrendre vb to surrender W7
  tradition n.fem tradition W7
French: anecdote n.fem anecdote W7
  donner vb to give TLL
  dose n.fem dose, ration W7
  dot n.fem dowry W7
Italian: dado n.masc die, cube W7/CID
  dare vb to give TLL
Baltic  
Lithuanian: dovanà n gift, present RPN
  dúoti, dúoda, dãvė vb to give LRC
Latvian: padoties, padodos, padevos vb to succumb, surrender LRC
Slavic  
Old Church Slavonic: dati, damь, dasi vb to give LRC
  dajati, dajǫ, daješi vb to give LRC
Russian: dat' vb to give LRC
Hellenic  
Cyprian: δοϜεναι vb to give RPN
Homeric Greek: διδόω/δίδωμι vb to give, grant, donate LRC
Greek: anekdota n.neut.pl unpublished items W7
  anekdotos adj unpublished W7
  antididonai vb to give in exchange W7
  antidotos vb.ptc given in exchange W7
  apodidonai vb to deliver, give back W7
  apodosis n.fem rendering, giving back W7
  dosis n.fem act of giving W7
  ekdidonai vb to publish W7
  epididonai vb to give in addition W7
  Pandōra prop.n.fem Pandora, lit. Gift of All W7
Anatolian  
Hittite: da-hhi vb to take LRC
Armenian  
Classical Armenian: tam vb to give; let, permit LRC
Iranian  
Old Persian: dadaiti vb to give TLL
Indic  
Sanskrit: dá-dā-ti vb to give, grant RPN

 

Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
adj=adjective
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
n=noun
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)
prop=proper
ptc=participle
sfx=suffix
trans=transitive
vb=verb

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
CID=Cassell's Italian Dictionary (1958)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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