The University of Texas at Austin; College of Liberal Arts
Hans C. Boas, Director :: PCL 5.556, 1 University Station S5490 :: Austin, TX 78712 :: 512-471-4566
LRC Links: Home | About | Books Online | EIEOL | IE Doc. Center | IE Lexicon | IE Maps | IE Texts | Pub. Indices | SiteMap

Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: dus-   'bad, foul, evil'

Semantic Fields: Bad; Demon, Evil Spirit

 

Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Celtic  
Old Irish: du-/do- pfx dys-, un-, ill-, mis- RPN
English  
Old English: tō-/te- pfx apart W7
Middle English: dis- pfx dys-, difficult W7
English: dys- pfx bad, abnormal AHD/W7
  dysarthria n dyslalia, lack of distinct articulation AHD/CDC
  dyslexia n impaired ability to recognize/comprehend writing AHD
  dysmenorrhea n painful/difficult/laborious menstruation AHD/CDC
  dysplasia n abnormal cell/organ/tissue growth/development AHD
E-Germanic  
Gothic: tuz- pfx dys-, un-, ill-, mis- RPN
Italic  
Latin: dys- pfx dys- W7
Middle French: dis- pfx dys-, difficult W7
Slavic  
Old Church Slavonic: dъž- pfx dys-, un-, ill-, mis- RPN
Hellenic  
Greek: δυσ- pfx dys-, un-, ill-, mis- RPN
Armenian  
Armenian: t- pfx un-, ill-, mis- RPN
Iranian  
Avestan: duš-/duž- pfx dys-, un-, ill-, mis- RPN
Indic  
Sanskrit: dúṣyati vb to turn bad, be defiled RPN
  dus-/dur- pfx dys-, un-, ill-, mis-, difficult W7
  doṣa-ḥ n crime, vice, want RPN

 

Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
n=noun
pfx=prefix
vb=verb

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

Nearby etyma:    previous   |   next