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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. dhabh-   'to fix, suit; proper'

Semantic Fields: Good; Custom, Usage


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: ge-dæfte adj meek, gentle RPN
  ge-dēfe/gedoefe adj seemly, fitting ASD
Middle English: dafte adj daft, stupid, gentle W7
  fabricaten vb to fabricate W7
  forge n forge W7
English: daft adj silly, foolish AHD/W7
  fabric n building, structure AHD/W7
  fabricate vb.trans to construct, manufacture AHD/W7
  forge n smithy, furnace where metal is heated/wrought AHD/W7
Dutch: fabriek n fabric, factory TLL
German: Fabrik n.fem fabric, factory LRC
  fabrizieren vb to fabricate LRC
Danish: fabrik n fabric, factory TLL
Swedish: fabrik n fabric, factory TLL
Gothic: ga-daban vb to happen, be fitting RPN
  ga-dōbs adj fitting ASD
Latin: faber adj/n.masc skillful; smith, craftsman RPN
  fabrica n.fem fabric, workshop W7
  fabricō, fabricāre, fabricāvī, fabricatus vb to make, build, fabricate W7
Old French: forge n.fem forge W7
Middle French: fabrique n.fem fabric, workshop W7
Lithuanian: dabìnti vb to adorn, decorate RPN
Old Church Slavonic: dobrъ adj good LRC
  dobrě adv good, well LRC
Armenian: darbin n smith RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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