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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 3. dhē-, dhə-   'to disappear, pass away'

Semantic Fields: to Depart, Go Away; to Die; Dead; Death


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: ded- vb to dwindle RPN
Old English: demm n damage, injury, loss, misfortune RPN
Middle English: dasen vb to daze IEW
  famishen vb to famish W7
English: daze vb to stun, deaden, benumb IEW
  famine n enduring period of widespread hunger LRC
  famish vb to (cause to) starve, suffer from hunger LRC
  fatigue n weariness, exhaustion W7
  fatigue vb to tire, weary W7
Old Icelandic: dasaðr adj weary, exhausted (from cold/exertion) RPN
  dasast vb to become weary/exhausted RPN
  dási adj sluggard, lazy fellow RPN
Swedish: dasa vb to lie idle RPN
Latin: famēs n.fem hunger, famine RPN
  fatīgo, fatīgare vb to fatigue RPN
Portuguese: fome n hunger, famine TLL
Spanish: hambre n.fem hunger, famine TLL
French: faim n.fem hunger, famine TLL
Italian: fame n.fem hunger, famine TLL


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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