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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: dhegh-   'to burn'

Semantic Field: to Burn, Scorch


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: daig n fire GED
  dega n.gen fire GED
Middle Irish: daig n fire RPN
Middle English: fomenten vb to foment W7
English: febrile adj feverish LRC
  fever n high body temperature (indicating illness) LRC
  foment vb.trans to bathe with warm water/medicated liquid AHD/W7
  fomite n pathogen-carrying object AHD
  tephra n solids ejected into air by erupting volcano AHD
German: Fieber n.neut fever TLL
Danish: feber n fever TLL
Swedish: feber n fever TLL
Latin: favīlla n.fem embers, hot ashes GED
  febrilis adj febrile LRC
  febris n fever RPN
  fomentum n.neut fomentation W7
  foveō, fovēre, fōvī, fōtum vb to favor, cherish, warm up GED
Late Latin: fomento, fomentāre vb to prepare, conspire W7
Portuguese: febre n fever TLL
Spanish: fiebre n fever TLL
French: fièvre n fever TLL
Italian: febbre n fever TLL
Old Prussian: dagis n summer GED
Lithuanian: dãgas, dagà n heat, sultry harvest time GED
  degù, dègti vb to burn RPN
Latvian: dęgu vb to burn GED
Old Church Slavonic: žegǫ, žešti vb to burn, ignite RPN
Albanian: djeg vb to burn up GED
Ionic: τέφρη n (burning) ashes RPN
Greek: τέφρα n ashes, tephra GED
Avestan: dažaiti vb to burn RPN
Sanskrit: dáhati vb to burn, consume by fire GED
  dāhas n heat, burning GED
  ni-dāghás n heat, summer GED
Pali: dahati vb to burn, roast RPN
  dahana- n fire, burning RPN
Hindi: dahnā vb to burn, be burnt RPN
Sindhi: da(h)o n sun, strong light of fire RPN
Tocharian B: tsäk- vb to burn (up) RPN
Tocharian A: tsāk- vb to shine, give light RPN
  tsäk- vb to burn GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
gen=genitive (case)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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