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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: dhē(i)-, also dh-ei-?   'to suck, suckle'

Semantic Field: to Suck, Suckle


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: denaid vb to suck RPN
  díth vb.past.pass.ptc sucked RPN
Old English: delu n.fem teat, nipple GED
  dēon vb to suck RPN
  diend n suckling RPN
  finol/finul/fynel/fenol n.masc fennel ASD
  finugl/finu(g)le n.fem fennel W7/ASD
Middle English: effeminate adj effeminate W7
  fecund adj fecund W7
  felicite n felicity W7
  femelle, female, femel n female W7
  feminine adj feminine W7
  fenel n fennel W7
  fenugrek n fenugreek W7
  filial adj filial W7
  foun n fawn W7
  infelicite n infelicity W7
English: affiliate n affiliated person/organization W7
  affiliate vb to bring/receive into connection as branch/member AHD/W7
  effeminate adj unmanly, having unsuitable feminine qualities AHD/W7
  effete adj no longer fertile AHD/W7
  endothelium n epithelium of mesoblastic origin AHD/W7
  epithelium n membranous cellular tissue covering free surface/lining tube/cavity of animal body AHD/W7
  fawn n young deer AHD/W7
  fecund adj prolific/fruitful in offspring/vegetation AHD/W7
  felicific adj causing/intended to cause happiness AHD/W7
  felicitate adj made happy AHD/W7
  felicity n happy AHD/W7
  fellatio n oral stimulation of penis AHD/W7
  female n sex that produces eggs/bears young AHD/W7
  feme n wife, woman AHD
  feminine adj re: female AHD/W7
  fennel n perennial European herb AHD/W7
  fenugreek n leguminous annual Asiatic herb AHD/W7
  fetal adj re: fetus AHD/W7
  feticide n act/instance of killing fetus AHD/W7
  fetus n unborn/unhatched vertebrate AHD/W7
  filial adj re: son/daughter AHD/W7
  filiate vb to determine paternity judicially AHD
  fils n son (vs. father with same given name) AHD
  finoc(c)hio n sweet fennel AHD
  infelicitous adj inappropriate in expression/application W7
  infelicity n state/quality of being infelicitous AHD/W7
  mesothelium n epithelium derived from mesoderm AHD/W7
  sainfoin n Eurasian pink-flowered leguminous forage herb AHD/W7
  superfetate vb to conceive again while pregnant AHD/CDC
  theelin n estrone AHD/W7
Middle Low German: dīen/tīen vb to suckle GED
Low German: daiern vb to raise on milk GED/RPN
Old High German: fenachal/fenihil n fennel ASD
  tāan/tāen vb to suckle GED/RPN
  tila n.fem teat GED
Middle High German: venchel n.masc fennel ASD
German: Fenchel n.masc fennel ASD
  Filiale n.fem branch, agency, chain store LRC
Old Icelandic: dilkr n.str.masc young animal GED
Old Swedish: dīa vb to suckle GED
  dæggia vb.wk to suckle GED/RPN
Swedish: del n teat GED
Gothic: *daddjan vb.wk.I to suckle GED/RPN
Latin: effemino, effemināre, effeminavi, effeminatus vb to make effeminate W7
  effetus adj tired (by excesses/from giving birth) W7
  fecundus adj fertile, fruitful W7
  felicitas, felicitatis n.fem happiness W7
  felix, felicis adj happy W7
  fello, fellare, fellavi, fellatus vb to suck W7
  felō, felāre vb to suck, suckle RPN
  femella n.fem.dim little girl W7
  fēmina, fēminae n.fem female, woman LRC
  femininus adj feminine W7
  feniculum n.neut.dim fennel W7
  fēnum n.neut hay AHD
  fetus adj fruitful, pregnant W7
  fetus n.masc brood, offspring; act of bearing young W7
  fīlia n.fem daughter RPN
  fīlius, fīlii n.masc son LRC
  infelicitas n.fem infelicity W7
  infelix, infelicis adj unhappy W7
Vulgar Latin: feto, fetonis n.masc offspring W7
Late Latin: felicito, felicitāre, felicatāvī, felicitatus vb to make happy W7
  filialis adj filial W7
Medieval Latin: affiliō, affiliāre, affiliavi, affiliatus vb to adopt as son W7
New Latin: endothelium n.neut linings on inside of body W7
  epithelium n.neut covering of inner mouth W7
  fellatio, fellationis n.fem fellatio W7
  fetus n.masc embryo W7
  mesothelium n.neut epithelium lining body cavities W7
Portuguese: feno n hay TLL
  filha n daughter TLL
  filho n son TLL
Spanish: heno n hay TLL
  hija n daughter TLL
  hijo n son TLL
Anglo-French: feme n feme AHD
Middle French: faon n.masc animal young W7
  fecond adj fertile W7
  felicité adj felicity, happiness W7
  femelle n.fem female, woman W7
  feminin adj feminine W7
  fenugrec n.masc fenugreek W7
  feon n.masc animal young W7
  sainfoin n.masc sainfoin W7
French: femme n woman TLL
  fille n daughter TLL
  fils n.masc son AHD
  foin n hay TLL
  sainfoin n.masc sainfoin (cultivated as cattle fodder) W7
Italian: fieno n hay TLL
  figlia n daughter TLL
  figlio n son TLL
  finocchio n.masc fennel, finochio AHD
Old Prussian: dadan n milk RPN
Lithuanian: dėlė n leech GED
Latvian: dêju, dêt vb to suck GED/RPN
  dẽle n leech GED
  dēls n son RPN
  dīle n suckling calf GED
Serbo-Croatian: dojka n breast RPN
  dòjiti vb to suckle RPN
Old Church Slavonic: dojǫ, dojiti vb to suckle; to milk GED/RPN
  děva n maiden, young girl RPN
  děvica n.fem girl, virgin LRC
  dětь n child GED/RPN
Albanian: dele n sheep GED
  djathë n cheese RPN
Hesychius' Greek Lexicon: θήνιον n milk RPN
Homeric Greek: θη̃λυς adj female GED/RPN
Greek: θηλάζω vb to suckle RPN
  θηλή n teat, nipple RPN
  θη̃σθαι vb to suckle RPN
Luwian: ti-i-ta-ni n.dat/loc breast, teat RPN
  ti-ta-i-(im-)me-iš n mother RPN
Lycian: tideimi- n child, son RPN
Hittite: teta(n)-, tita(n) n breast, teat RPN
  ti-ta-an-za vb.ptc sucking RPN
  *titiya- vb to suckle RPN
Armenian: diem vb to suck GED/RPN
Avestan: -dāenuš n female animal GED
Ossetic: däïn vb to suck RPN
  däyun vb to suck RPN
Sanskrit: dháyati vb to suck, drink GED/RPN
  dhātrī́ n nurse RPN
  dhāpáyate vb.caus to give suck, nourish RPN
  dhā́yas- n nourishing, refreshing RPN
  dhāyú-ḥ n voracious??? RPN
  dhārúṣ vb.ptc sucking GED
  dhenú-ḥ n milk RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
I=class 1
dat=dative (case)
fem=feminine (gender)
loc=locative (case)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pass=passive (voice)
past=past (tense)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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