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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: dhēig- : dhōig- : dhīg-   'to dig, plant, stab, stick'

Semantic Fields: to Dig, Delve; to Press; Knife (tool)


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: dīc n.masc dike, ditch W7/ASD
Middle English: crucifien vb to crucify W7
  dich n ditch W7
  diggen vb to dig W7
  dike n dike W7
  fixen vb to fix W7
  prefixen vb to prefix W7
English: affix vb.trans to fasten, attach physically AHD/W7
  antefix n ornament at eaves of classical building AHD/W7
  crucify vb.trans to kill by nailing/binding hands/feet to cross AHD/W7
  dig, dug vb.str to delve, loosen/turn up/remove earth AHD/W7
  dike n ditch, artificial watercourse AHD/W7
  ditch n long narrow excavation for defense/drainage/irrigation AHD/W7
  fibula n ancient Greek/Roman clasp resembling safety pin AHD
  fichu n woman's light triangular scarf AHD/W7
  finca n Spanish American rural property AHD
  fishgig n pronged fish spear AHD
  fix vb to make fast/firm/stable AHD/W7
  fixate vb to fix, make fixed/unchanging AHD/W7
  fixity n state/quality of being fixed/stable AHD/W7
  fixture n act/process of making fast/firm/stable AHD/W7
  infibulate vb.trans to clasp/buckle/button together AHD/W2I
  infix vb.trans to fix/fasten by piercing/thrusting in AHD/W7
  microfiche n card/sheet of microfilm AHD
  prefix n morpheme bound/attached to beginning of word AHD/W7
  prefix vb.trans to fix/appoint beforehand AHD/W7
  suffix n morpheme bound/attached to end of word AHD/W7
  transfix vb.trans to impale, pierce with pointed weapon AHD/W7
Old Frisian: dik n.masc dike, dam ASD
Dutch: dijk n.masc dike ASD
Old Saxon: dīc n.masc dike, dam ASD
Middle High German: tīch n dike, pond W7
German: Deich n.masc dike, dam, embankment LRC
  Teich n.masc pond LRC
Old Icelandic: dīk(i) n dike LRC
Swedish: ficka n pocket TLL
Latin: affigo, affigere, affixi, affixus vb to affix W7
  antefigo, antefigere vb to fasten before W7
  antefixus vb.ptc antefix, thing fixed in front W7
  figo, figere, fixi, fixus vb to fix, pierce, fasten W7
  finiō, finīre, finīvī, finītum vb to end, finish LRC
  finis, finis n.masc end, limit, border LRC
  infigo, infigere, infixi, infixus vb to fasten in W7
  praefigo, praefigere, praefixi, praefixus vb to fasten before W7
  praefixum n.neut prefix W7
  suffigo, suffigere, suffixi, suffixus vb to fasten underneath W7
  suffixum n.neut suffix W7
  transfigo, transfigere, transfixi, transfixus vb to fasten across W7
Vulgar Latin: figico, figicare vb to pierce, fasten W7
Late Latin: crucifigo, crucifigere vb to crucify W7
  fixura n.fem act of fixing/fastening W7
Medieval Latin: affixo, affixare vb to join, affix to W7
Old Spanish: fincar vb to reside, pitch tents AHD
Spanish: finca n real estate AHD
  fisga n.fem fisga, barbed dart AHD
American Spanish: finca n finca: rural property AHD
Old French: crucifier vb to crucify W7
Middle French: fixer vb to fix W7
  préfixer vb to add a prefix W7
French: ficher vb to stick in, throw on W7
  fichu n.masc fichu, shawl W7
Italian: affinchè conj in order that TLL
  finchè conj til TLL
  fino adv until TLL
  hacia adv/prep toward TLL
Old Prussian: digno n sword-handle LRC
Lithuanian: dáiktas n.masc thing LRC
  dýgti vb to sprout LRC
Sanskrit: dehī n.fem bank, mound, rampart ASD


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W2I=Webster's New International Dictionary of the English Language, 2nd ed. (1959)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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