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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: dhem-, dhemə-   'to blow, fly about like dust'

Semantic Field: to Blow


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: dem adj dim, black RPN
Welsh: dew n fog, gloom, dusk RPN
Old English: dim(m) adj dim RPN
Middle English: dim/dym adj dim CDC
English: damp n fog, moisture, humidity IEW
  dank adj damp, moist, humid IEW
  dim adj dark, unlit, poorly lit LRC
  Dimholt prop.n black grove in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  Dimrill prop.n high pass in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  Evendim prop.n northern lake in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Old Frisian: dim adj dim CDC
  diunk adj dark RPN
Old Saxon: *dim/þim adj dim CDC
  dunkar adj dark RPN
Old High German: dampf n steam, mist, smoke RPN
  dunkal/tunkal adj dark RPN
  timbar/timber/timmer adj dim ASD/CDC
  tunchal/tunchar adj dark RPN
Middle High German: timber/timmer adj dim ASD
German: Dampf n.masc damp, mist, steam LRC
  dunkel adj dim LRC
Old Icelandic: dimma vb to darken, make dim RPN
  dimmr adj dim RPN
  døkkva vb to darken, make dim RPN
Icelandic: dimmr adj dim ASD
Danish: damp n damp, steam TLL
Swedish: dimma n fog, mist, haze CDC
  dimmig adj dim, foggy CDC
Lithuanian: dangà n cover, roof; garment RPN
  dangùs n sky RPN
  dengiù, deñgti vb to cover RPN
  dingsiù, dingsė́ti vb to be hidden RPN
  dumiù, dùmti vb to blow; to smoke RPN
Latvian: danga n mire, morass RPN
Old Church Slavonic: dъmǫ, dǫti vb to blow RPN
Luwian: da-ak-ku-ú-i-iš n dark RPN
Hittite: da-an-ku-e-eš-zi to darken, turn black RPN
  da-an-ku-i-iš adj black, dark RPN
  da-an-ku-ni-eš-kir made dark, black RPN
Parachi: dhamā́n n wind RPN
Ashkunu: domṍ n wind RPN
Sanskrit: dhámati vb to blow RPN
Prakrit: dhamaṇī̆ n bellows RPN
Hindi: dhaũknā vb to blow, pant, breathe on RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
3=3rd person
masc=masculine (gender)
pl=plural (number)
pret=preterite (tense)
sg=singular (number)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)

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