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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: ed-   'to eat'

Semantic Field: to Eat


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: dēt n tooth GED
  essur vb to eat GED
Welsh: dant n tooth GED
  esu vb to eat LRC
Old English: ǣs n.str.neut carcass GED
  ǣt n.str.neut food GED
  ent n.masc giant, strong/mighty person ASD
  entisc adj re: giant(s) LRC
  e(ō)ten n.masc giant, monster ASD
  eōtenisc/eōtonisc adj re: giant, monster ASD
  etan, æt, æton, eten vb.str to eat GED
  ettan, ettede, etted vb.wk.I to feed, graze, pasture LRC
  fretan vb to devour W7
  tind n.masc tine, tooth (of implement) IEW/ASD
  tōþ, tēþ n tooth, teeth GED
  tūsc/tūx n tush, tusk GED
Northumbrian: eta vb to eat ASD
Middle English: denticle n denticle W7
  endenture n indenture, written agreement AHD
  eont n giant OED
  eten vb to eat W7
  et(t)in n giant, monster OED
  freten vb to fret, devour W7
  indenten vb to indent W7
  tind n tine W7
  tooth n tooth W7
  tusche n tush AHD
  tusk/tux n tusk W7
English: anodyne adj soothing, serving to assuage pain AHD/W7
  ceratodus n recent/fossil dipnoan fish AHD/W7
  comedo n blackhead AHD/W7
  comestible adj edible AHD/W7
  conodont n extinct small fishlike chordate with conical teeth AHD
  creodont n extinct carnivorous mammal, lit. flesh-tooth AHD
  dandelion n Eurasian plant with large bright-yellow flower AHD/CDC
  dental adj re: teeth/dentistry AHD/W7
  dentate adj having teeth/pointed conical projections AHD/W7
  denti- pfx re: tooth/teeth AHD
  denticle n small tooth/other conical pointed projection AHD/W7
  dentist n one who treats teeth and associated tissues AHD/W7
  eat, ate, eaten vb.str to ingest, chew, and swallow as food AHD/W7
  edacious adj re: eating AHD/W7
  edentate adj lacking teeth AHD/W7
  edentulous adj toothless AHD/W7
  edible adj eatable, fit to be eaten AHD/W7
  Ent prop.n tree-herder in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  Enting prop.n Ent child in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  Entish prop.n Ent language in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  Entmaiden prop.n young female Ent in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  Entmoot prop.n Ent gathering in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  Entwade prop.n Rohan river fords in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  Entwash prop.n Rohan river in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  Entwives adult female Ents in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  Entwood prop.n a.k.a. Fangorn Forest in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  escarole n endive AHD/W7
  esculent adj edible AHD/W7
  esurient adj greedy, hungry AHD/W7
  etch vb to draw/write esp. on metal/glass by corrosive acidic action AHD/W7
  Ettendales troll-fells in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  Ettenmoors troll-fells in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  frass n insect droppings/excrement AHD
  fret vb.trans to vex, cause suffering via emotional strain AHD/W7
  indent vb to cut/divide document to produce irregular pieces that can be matched AHD/W7
  indenture n contract binding one into service AHD
  mastodon n extinct giant mammal akin to elephant AHD/W7
  obese adj corpulent, excessively fat AHD/W7
  -odon n.sfx tooth AHD
  -odont adj.sfx re: teeth of specified nature AHD/W7
  odont(o)- pfx tooth AHD
  pleurodynia n paroxysmal pain/soreness of muscles between ribs AHD
  postprandial adj after meal/dinner AHD
  prandial adj re: meal/dinner AHD
  Samoyed prop.n one from Siberian Urals LRC
  Silvertine prop.n Moria mountain peak in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  Tindrock prop.n island a.k.a. Tol Brandir in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  tine n prong, tooth, slender pointed projection GED
  tooth, teeth n.str hard bony appendage(s) on vertebrate's jaw used to masticate food AHD/W7
  trident adj having 3 teeth/points/processes AHD/W7
  trident n 3-pronged spear associated with sea god in classical mythology AHD/W7
  tush n tusk, tooth AHD
  tusk n elongated, greatly enlarged tooth projecting from mouth even when closed AHD/W7
Old Frisian: ǣt n.str.neut food GED
  ēt n.str.neut food GED
  eta/ita vb.str to eat GED
  etta vb.wk to feed, pasture GED
  tōth/tond n.masc tooth, tusk GED/ASD
  tusk n.wk.masc tusk, tooth GED/ASD
Frisian: ytten vb to eat ASD
Dutch: aas n.neut carrion ASD
  eten vb to eat ASD
  etsen vb to etch W7
  tand n tooth TLL
  vreten vb to devour ASD
Old Saxon: āt n.str.neut food GED
  etan/etān vb.str to eat GED/ASD
  tand n tooth GED
  zand n.masc tooth, tusk ASD
Old Low German: zand n.masc tooth, tusk ASD
Middle Low German: or-āte/or-ēte n straw, remainder of animal feed GED
  ort n food remnants GED
  tind n tine GED
  tinne n pinnacle GED
Low German: freten/vreten vb to devour ASD
Old High German: ās n.str.neut carcass GED
  āz n.str.neut food GED
  āzig adj enjoyable GED
  azzen/ezzen vb.wk to feed, pasture GED
  ez(z)an vb.str to eat GED/ASD
  frezzan/farëzzan/firezan/frëzan vb.str to devour GED/ASD
  zand/zan(t) n.masc tooth, tusk W7/ASD
  zinna n.wk.fem pinnacle GED
Middle High German: ās n.neut carrion ASD
  ëzzen vb to eat ASD
  vrëzzen vb to devour ASD
  zint n.str.masc prong, spike, tooth GED
German: Aas n.neut carrion ASD
  ätzen vb to feed W7
  essen vb.irr to eat ASD
  fressen vb to devour ASD
  Zahn n.masc tooth LRC
  Zinke n.fem prong LRC
  Zinne n.fem pinnacle LRC
Old Norse: jǫtunn n.masc giant, monster LRC
  tǫnn, teðr n.fem tooth, teeth LRC
Old Icelandic: af-āt/of-āt n.str.neut gluttony GED
  āt n.str.neut food GED
  eta vb.str to eat GED
  etja vb.wk to feed, pasture GED
  of-āt n fodder GED
  tindr n tip; tooth on wheel GED
  ǣtr adj edible GED
  ætr adj enjoyable GED
Icelandic: eta vb to eat ASD
  tindr n.masc spike; peak ASD
  tonn n.masc tooth, tusk ASD
Danish: aas n.neut carrion ASD
  fraadse vb to devour ASD
  tand n tooth TLL
  äde vb to eat ASD
Swedish: as n.neut carrion ASD
  frata/frassa vb to devour ASD
  tand n tooth LRC
  äta vb to eat ASD
Gothic: af-etja n.masc glutton GED
  fra-atjan vb.wk.I to give (as food) GED
  fra-itan vb.str.IV to devour GED
  itan vb.str.V to eat LRC
  *tunþus n.masc tooth, tusk GED
  uz-ēta n.wk.masc crib, manger GED
Latin: comedo, comedere, comedi, comestus vb to eat, consume W7
  comedo n.masc glutton W7
  dens, dentis n.masc tooth GED
  dentalis adj of the teeth W7
  dentatus adj dentate, who has teeth W7
  denticulus n.masc small teeth W7
  edax, edacis adj edacious, glutton W7
  edento, edentāre, edentāvī, edentātus vb to make toothless W7
  edentulus adj having lost the teeth (diminutive) W7
  edō, edere/ēsse vb to eat GED
  esca n.fem food W7
  escarius adj of food W7
  esculentus adj edible W7
  esuriens, esurientis vb.ptc being hungry W7
  esurio, esurire vb to be hungry W7
  obedo, obedere, obēdī, obēsus vb to eat up W7
  tridens, tridentis adj having three teeth W7
Late Latin: edibilis adj edible W7
  escariola n.fem food W7
Medieval Latin: comestibilis adj edible W7
New Latin: ceratodus adj animal with horns W7
  comedo n.masc blackhead W7
  mastodon, mastodontis n.neut mastodon, very large beast W7
Old French: dent n.fem tooth W7
  endenter vb to grow the teeth W7
Anglo-French: endenter vb to indent AHD
Middle French: comestible adj edible W7
  endenter vb to grow the teeth W7
French: dent n.fem tooth W7
  dentiste n.masc dentist W7
  escarole n.fem (type of) chicory W7
Old Prussian: īdis n food, meal GED
  īst vb to eat GED
Lithuanian: dantìs n tooth GED
  edu vb to eat LRC
  ėda n.fem food GED
  ėdis n.masc food, fodder GED
  ėdžia n glutton GED
  ėsti vb to eat GED
  úodas n eater, mosquito GED
Latvian: êst vb to eat GED
  uôds n eater, mosquito GED
Czech: uršš n food remnants GED
Old Church Slavonic: ob-ědъ n meal GED
  ědь n food GED
  jadь n food GED
  jamь vb to eat GED
  jasli manger LRC
Russian: samoed n Samoyed W7
Aeolic: ʼέ-δοντες teeth GED
Ionic: ὀ-δών n.masc tooth GED
Homeric Greek: ʼέδω vb to eat, gnaw LRC
  ἐσθίω/ʼέσθω vb to eat, consume LRC
  ὀδάξ adv biting, with teeth GED
  ὀδούς/ὀδόντος n.masc tooth GED
Greek: anōdynos n.masc something that soothes pain W7
  δάκνω vb to bite GED
  ʼέδμεναι vb to eat GED
  ʼέδω vb to eat GED
  ἐδωδή n food GED
  ἐδωδός adj greedy GED
  κατέδω vb to eat up, devour LRC
  odynē n.fem pain W7
Hittite: ed-mi vb to eat LRC
Armenian: a-ta-mn n tooth GED/IEW
Avestan: aδāiti vb to eat LRC
  dantan-, datā n tooth GED
Sanskrit: ád-mi vb to eat LRC
  ādyás adj edible, palatable GED
  dán, datás n tooth GED
  dáśati vb to bite GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
I=class 1
IV=class 4
V=class 5
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
OED=James A.H. Murray et al: The Oxford English Dictionary (1933)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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