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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: ēik-   'to own, possess, be capable'

Semantic Field: to Own, Possess

 

Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Celtic  
Irish: icht n race, descendants GED
English  
Old English: ǣgen/āgen adj own, proper, peculiar LRC
  ǣht n.str.fem property GED
  āgan, āh, āgon, āhte vb.ptpr.I to own, possess LRC
  āgnian/āhnian vb.wk to acquire, possess GED/ASD
Middle English: fraught n fraught, freight W7
  fraughten vb to fraught, freight W7
  freight n freight W7
  oughte vb.aux ought W7
  owen vb to owe, own W7
English: fraught adj.arch freighted AHD/W7
  freight n payment for transport of goods AHD/W7
  freight vb.trans to load/transport (cargo) W7
  ought vb.aux to be morally obliged AHD/W7
  owe vb to own, possess AHD/W7
  own adj belonging to self AHD/W7
  own vb to possess LRC
Scots English: fraught n freight, load, cargo AHD/W7
  fraught vb.trans to freight AHD/W7
W-Germanic  
Old Frisian: āga vb.ptpr.I to own, possess GED
  ē(g)in/ain/e(i)gen adj own GED/ASD
Middle Dutch: vracht n freight W7
Old Saxon: ēgan adj own GED
  ēgan n.str.neut property, possessions GED
  ēgan vb.ptpr.I to own, possess GED
Middle Low German: vrecht n freight W7
Old High German: ēht n.str.fem property GED
  eigan/eikan adj own GED/ASD
  eigan n.str.neut property, possessions GED
  eigan vb.ptpr.I to own, possess GED
  eiginēn vb.wk to take possession of GED
Middle High German: eigen adj own ASD
German: eigen adj own LRC
  eignen vb to be suited for LRC
  Fracht n.fem freight LRC
N-Germanic  
Old Norse: átt/ætt n.str.fem region, direction; tribe, family, ancestry ASD
  eiga vb.ptpr.I to own, have, possess LRC
  eigin(n) adj own W7/ASD
  eigna, eignað vb.wk to dedicate, take possession LRC
  eignask vb to gain possession, get for oneself LRC
  eigu n.fem possession LRC
Old Icelandic: ātt n.str.fem race, descendants GED
E-Germanic  
Gothic: *aigan vb to have GED
  aigin n.neut property GED
  áihts n.str.fem property, possession LRC
  fair-aigan vb to partake (of) GED
Slavic  
Old Church Slavonic: istъ adj true, genuine GED
Iranian  
Avestan: ise vb to have power over GED
  īšti- n riches, property GED
Indic  
Sanskrit: īśe, īṣṭe vb to own, possess GED
Tocharian  
Tocharian B: aiśaumye n learned person GED

 

Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
I=class 1
adj=adjective
arch=archaic
aux=auxiliary
fem=feminine (gender)
n=noun
neut=neuter (gender)
ptpr=preterite-present (verb)
str=strong (inflection)
trans=transitive
vb=verb
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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