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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. el-, ol-, el-   'red, brown'

Semantic Field: Red


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: alor/aler/air n.masc alder W7/ASD
  ellærn n elder W7
  eolh n.masc elk; (name for) X-rune W7/ASD
  lamb n.neut lamb W7/ASD
Middle English: alder n alder W7
  eldre n elder W7
  elk n elk W7
  elm n elm W7
  lamb n lamb W7
English: alder n toothed-leaved tree/shrub in birch family AHD/W7
  auk n black/white short-necked seabird of northern hemisphere AHD/W7
  elder n tree/shrub in honeysuckle family AHD/W7
  elk n large deer AHD/W7
  elm n large tree: alternate stipulate leaves, small apetalous flowers AHD/W7
  lamb n baby sheep TLL
Dutch: else n.fem alder ASD
  lam n lamb TLL
  olm n elm TLL
Old High German: elaho n elk W7
  elira/erila n.fem alder W7/ASD
  elme n elm W7
  lamb n lamb KDW
Middle High German: elch n elk ASD
German: Elch n.masc elk LRC
  Eller n alder ASD
  Erle n.fem alder ASD
  Lamm n.neut lamb TLL
  Ulme n.fem elm LRC
Runic: algiz n elk; (name for) Z-rune LRC
Old Norse: ālka n swan W7
  elgr n elk ASD
  elri n.neut alder ASD
  elrir/ölr n.masc alder ASD
  lamb n lamb KNW
Icelandic: alk(a) n swan W7
Norwegian: alk n auk AHD
Danish: alk n auk CDC
  elm n elm TLL
  lam n lamb TLL
Swedish: alka n auk CDC
  alm n elm TLL
  lamm n lamb TLL
Gothic: lamb n lamb KGW
Latin: alces n elk ASD
  alnus n.fem alder W7
  olor n.masc swan W7
  ulmus n.fem elm W7
New Latin: Alca n auk CDC
Greek: elaphos n.masc deer W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
KDW=Gerhard Köbler: Althochdeutsches Wörterbuch, 4th ed. (1993)
KGW=Gerhard Köbler: Gotisches Wörterbuch, 2nd ed. (1989)
KNW=Gerhard Köbler: Altnordisches Wörterbuch, 2nd ed. (2003)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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