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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: ēlā   'awl, bodkin'

Semantic Fields: Awl; Needle


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: æl/al n.fem awl W7/CDC/ASD
  awel n awl, fleshhook AHD
Middle English: al(le) n awl W7/CDC
English: awl n pointed tool for marking/piercing IEW/W7
Scots English: elsin/elson n awl CDC
Old Dutch: (a)elsene n awl CDC
Dutch: els n awl CDC
Old Low German: ael n awl CDC
Old High German: āla n.fem awl W7/IEW
  alansa/alunsa n awl IEW
Middle High German: āle n.fem awl IEW
German: Ahle n.fem awl, bodkin CDC
Old Norse: alr n.masc awl, bradawl IEW
Icelandic: alr n awl CDC
Gothic: *ēla n awl IEW
Middle Latin: alesna n awl CDC
Spanish: (a)lesna n awl CDC
Old French: alesne n awl CDC
French: aléne n awl CDC
Old Occitan: alena n awl CDC
Italian: lesina n awl CDC
Old Prussian: ylo n awl IEW
Lithuanian: ýla n awl IEW
Latvian: īlęns n awl IEW
Sanskrit: ārā n awl W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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