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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: e-neu̯en, neu̯n̥, enu̯n̥   'nine'

Semantic Field: Number

 

Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Celtic  
Old Irish: noī nbr.card nine (9) EIE
  nōmad nbr.ord ninth (9th) EIE
Irish: naoi nbr.card nine (9) LRC
Scots Gaelic: naoi nbr.card nine (9) LRC
Manx: nuy nbr.card nine (9) LRC
Middle Welsh: naw nbr.card nine (9) EIE
  nawuet nbr.ord ninth (9th) EIE
Gaulish: namet nbr.ord ninth (9th) EIE
English  
Old English: hundnigontig nbr.card hundred ninety (190) W7
  nigon nbr.card nine (9) W7
  nigontīene nbr.card nineteen (19) W7/ASD
  nigontig nbr.card ninety (90) W7
  nigoða nbr.ord ninth (9th) EIE
  nōn n.neut noon, none W7/ASD
Middle English: nine/nyne adj nine (9) W7
  ninety nbr.card ninety (90) W7
  nonys n.pl nones W7
  noon n noon W7
  Novembre prop.n November W7
  nynetene nbr.card nineteen (19) W7
English: ennead n nine AHD/W7
  nine nbr.card 9 AHD/W7
  nineteen nbr.card 19 AHD/W7
  ninety nbr.card 90 AHD/W7
  ninth nbr.ord 9th AHD
  nonagenarian n person in his/her nineties AHD/W7
  nonagon n polygon of nine sides/angles AHD/W7
  none n ninth hour from sunrise W7
  nones n.pl 9th day before Ides of month AHD/W7
  noon n midday, middle of day AHD/W7
  November prop.n 11th month (in Gregorian calendar) AHD/W7
  novena n nine-day devotion (Roman Catholicism) AHD/W7
W-Germanic  
Old Frisian: nigun nbr.card nine (9) ASD
Old Saxon: nigun nbr.card nine (9) ASD
  nōn/nuon n noon, none ASD
Old High German: niun nbr.card nine (9) W7
  niunte/niunto nbr.ord ninth (9th) EIE
German: neun nbr.card nine LRC
  neunzehn nbr.card nineteen LRC
  neunzig nbr.card ninety LRC
N-Germanic  
Old Norse: niundi/niunde nbr.ord ninth (9th) EIE
  nīu/nío nbr.card nine (9) EIE
Icelandic: níu nbr.card nine (9) ASD
  nōn n.neut none ASD
E-Germanic  
Gothic: niun nbr.card nine (9) ASD
  niunda nbr.ord ninth (9th) EIE
Crimean Gothic: nyne nbr.card nine (9) EIE
Italic  
Latin: nona n.fem none W7
  nonae n.fem.pl nones, 5th day of month W7
  nōnus adj ninth (9th) W7
  novem nbr.card nine (9) W7
  November prop.n.masc November, ninth month (in Roman calendar) W7
  novenus adj nine each W7
Medieval Latin: novena n.fem novena W7
Portuguese: nove num.card nine (9) TLL
Spanish: nueve num.card nine (9) TLL
Old French: Novembre prop.n.masc November W7
French: neuf num.card nine (9) TLL
Italian: nove num.card nine (9) TLL
Baltic  
Old Prussian: newīnts nbr.ord ninth (9th) EIE
Lithuanian: deviñtas nbr.ord ninth (9th) EIE
  devynì nbr.card nine (9) EIE
Latvian: devini nbr.card nine (9) EIE
  devîtais nbr.ord ninth (9th) EIE
Slavic  
Old Church Slavonic: devętĭ nbr.card nine (9) EIE
  devętŭ nbr.ord ninth (9th) EIE
Russian: dévjatĭ nbr.card nine (9) EIE
  devjátyj nbr.ord ninth (9th) EIE
Albanian  
Albanian: nëndë/nëntë nbr.card nine (9) EIE
  nëndë/nëntë nbr.ord ninth (9th) EIE
Gheg: nândë/nântë nbr.card nine (9) EIE
Hellenic  
Greek: ʼένατος nbr.ord ninth (9th) EIE
  ἐννέα nbr.card nine (9) EIE
  enneas n.fem group of nine W7
Anatolian  
Lycian: nuñ- nbr.card nine (9) EIE
Armenian  
Armenian: inn nbr.card nine (9) EIE
Iranian  
Avestan: naoma- nbr.ord ninth (9th) EIE
  nava nbr.card nine (9) EIE
Indic  
Sanskrit: náva nbr.card nine (9) EIE
  navamá- nbr.ord ninth (9th) EIE
Tocharian  
Tocharian B: ñu nbr.card nine (9) EIE
  ñunte nbr.ord ninth (9th) EIE
Tocharian A: ñu nbr.card nine (9) EIE

 

Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
adj=adjective
card=cardinal
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
n=noun
nbr=number
neut=neuter (gender)
num=numeral
ord=ordinal
pl=plural (number)
prop=proper

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
EIE=J.P. Mallory and D.Q. Adams, eds. Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture (1997)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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