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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: eng-, n̥gḗn   'bump, swelling'

Semantic Field: Form, Shape (n)


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
English: inguinal adj re: groin/lowest lateral abdomenal region AHD/W7
  lymphadenitis n lymph gland inflammation AHD/W7
  mesonephros n middle embryonic renal organ in higher vertebrate AHD/W7
  metanephros n posterior embryonic renal organ in higher vertebrate AHD/W7
  nephron n single excretory unit of vertebrate kidney AHD/W7
  perinephrium n fatty connective tissue surrounding kidney AHD
  pronephros n anterior embryonic renal organ in higher vertebrate AHD/W7
  sialadenitis n salivary gland inflammation AHD
Dutch: nier n kidney TLL
German: Nephron n nephron W7
  Niere n kidney TLL
Danish: nyre n kidney TLL
Swedish: njure n kidney TLL
Latin: inguinalis adj of the groin W7
  lympha n water goddess W7
New Latin: lymph- pfx water W7
  lymphaden n.neut lymph gland W7
  lymphadenitis n.fem inflammation of lymph glands W7
  mesonephros n.masc middle embryonic renal organ in higher vertebrate W7
  metanephros n.masc posterior embryonic renal organ in higher vertebrate W7
  pronephros n.masc anterior embryonic renal organ in higher vertebrate W7
Greek: nephros n.masc kidney W7
  νψμπηε̄ n nymph LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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