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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: epi, opi, pi   'at, near, epi-'

Semantic Field: Near (adj)


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: ǣfen/ǣfyn/ēfen n.masc even(ing) IEW/ASD
  ǣfen-steorra n.masc evening-star ASD
  ǣfnung n.fem evening ASD
  eofot/eofut/eofet n.neut crime W7/ASD
Middle English: epi- pfx epi- W7
  eve(n) n even(ing) W7
  even(e)-sterre n evening-star OED
  evening n evening W7
English: epi- pfx (up)on AHD/W7
  epigeal adj growing above ground AHD/W7
  epigene adj on/near earth's surface AHD/W7
  even n evening W7
  Evendim prop.n northern lake in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  evening n early night, close of day W7
  evening-star n Venus seen at/after sunset W7
  Evenstar prop.n Arwen's epithet in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  eventide n evening AHD/W7
  obtund vb to dull, deaden, make less intense AHD
  opisthobranch n gastropod mollusk with 2 pairs of tentacles AHD
  opisthognathous adj having retreating jaws AHD/W7
  opsonin n blood constituent making foreign cells susceptible to phagocyte action AHD/W7
Old Frisian: ávend n.masc even(ing) ASD
Middle Dutch: avont n.masc even(ing) ASD
Dutch: avond n even(ing) ASD
Old Saxon: āband n.masc even(ing) ASD
Old High German: āband/āpand/ābant/ābunt n.masc even(ing) W7/ASD
Middle High German: ābent n.masc even(ing) ASD
German: Abend n.masc even(ing) ASD
Old Norse: aptann n.masc even(ing) LRC
Icelandic: aptan/aftan n.masc even(ing) ASD
Danish: aften n.masc even(ing) ASD
Swedish: afton n.masc even(ing) ASD
Gothic: *iftuma adv on the following... GED
Latin: epi- pfx on, over W7
  ob prep towards GED
  opsonium n.neut relish W7
  ostendō, ostendere, ostendī, ostentum vb to show, point out LRC
New Latin: epi- pfx on, onto W7
Middle French: epi- pfx on W7
Lithuanian: ap(i)- pfx about GED
Latvian: ap prep around, by, near, about LRC
  piedurkne n.fem sleeve LRC
Albanian: épërm adj.comp higher GED
Mycenaean: o-pi prep upon GED
Greek: ἐνταυ̃θα adv then, there LRC
  ἐντευ̃θεν adv from there LRC
  ʼέπι/ἐπί prep to GED
  ἐπί adv/prep on, about LRC
  μετόπισθε adv afterwards LRC
  ʼόπιθεν prep after GED
  ʼόπισθεν adv behind LRC
  ὀπίσω adv back LRC
  opsōnein vb to purchase victuals W7
  opsōnion n.neut food W7
Hittite: appezzi(ya)- adv later GED
Classical Armenian: ew conj and, too, also LRC
Armenian: ev conj and GED
Old Persian: apiy prep near GED
Avestan: aipi prep near GED
Sanskrit: ápi conj also GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
OED=James A.H. Murray et al: The Oxford English Dictionary (1933)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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