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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 4. er-, er-t-, er-u̯-   'earth'

Semantic Field: Earth, Land

 

Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
English  
Old English: eard n.masc earth; home, native country ASD
  eorþ(e) n.fem earth ASD
  middan-eard n.masc middle dwelling, lit. middle-earth ASD
Middle English: erthe n earth W7
English: aardvark n nocturnal ant-eating African mammal AHD/W7
  aardwolf n carrion-eating SE African mammal AHD/W7
  earth n our world; soil, land, ground AHD/W7
  earthen adj made of earth-soil W7
  Middle-earth prop.n world setting in Tolkien: The Hobbit, The Lord of the Rings LRC
W-Germanic  
Middle Dutch: aerde n earth AHD
Dutch: aard n.masc nature, temper ASD
  aarde n earth TLL
Afrikaans: aard n earth W7
  aardvark n aardvark W7
  aardwolf n aardwolf W7
Old Saxon: ard n.masc home, dwelling ASD
Old High German: art n.fem plow ASD
  erda n.fem earth W7
Middle High German: art n nature ASD
German: Art n.fem kind, nature ASD
  Erde n.fem earth LRC
  irden adj earthen TLL
N-Germanic  
Old Norse: jǫrð n.fem earth LRC
Danish: jord n earth TLL
Swedish: jord n earth TLL
E-Germanic  
Gothic: aírþa n.str.fem earth LRC
Hellenic  
Greek: eraze adv to the ground W7

 

Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
adj=adjective
adv=adverb(ial)
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
n=noun
prop=proper
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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