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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: ers- : orsos   'tail; arse, rump, backside'

Semantic Field: Tail

 

Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Celtic  
Old Irish: asan n ass: donkey W7
  err n arse, tail W7
Irish: asal n ass: donkey CDC
Gaelic: asal n ass: donkey CDC
Manx: assyl n ass: donkey CDC
Breton: azen n ass: donkey CDC
Cornish: asen n ass: donkey CDC
Welsh: asyn n ass: donkey CDC
English  
Old English: ærs/ears n.masc arse AHD/ASD
  assa/asse n.masc ass: donkey W7/ASD
  assen n.fem ass: donkey CDC
Northumbrian: asal/as(s)ald n ass: donkey CDC
Middle English: ars/ers n arse CDC
  ass/as(se) n ass: donkey W7/CDC
  squirel n squirrel W7
English: anthurium n (genus of) tropical evergreen ornamental plant AHD
  anuran n salientian: tailless amphibian AHD/W7
  arse n rump, buttocks, backside LRC
  ass n arse; donkey AHD/W7
  cynosure n northern constellation Ursa Minor AHD/W7
  dasyure n Australian/Tasmanian arboreal carnivorous marsupial mammal AHD/W7
  dodo n extinct heavy flightless bird AHD/W7
  eremurus n foxtail lily AHD/W7
  ophiuroid n starfish: sand-star, brittle star AHD
  oxyuriasis n pinworm disease/infestation AHD/W7
  silurid n freshwater Eurasian catfish AHD
  squirrel n small/medium-sized rodent AHD/W7
  trichuriasis n whipworm disease/infestation AHD/W7
  -urous adj.sfx -tailed AHD/W7
W-Germanic  
Old Frisian: ers n arse ASD
Frisian: earse/earz n arse ASD
Dutch: aars n.masc arse ASD
  ezel n ass: donkey CDC
Old Saxon: esil n ass: donkey CDC
Old High German: ars n.masc arse W7/ASD
  esil n ass: donkey CDC
Middle High German: ars n.masc arse ASD
  esel n ass: donkey CDC
German: Arsch n.masc/fem arse W7/ASD
  Esel n.masc ass: donkey CDC
N-Germanic  
Old Norse: ars n arse W7
  asni n.masc ass: donkey ASD
Icelandic: ars/rass n.masc arse ASD
  asna n.fem ass: donkey CDC
  asni n.masc ass: donkey CDC
Danish: ar(t)s n.masc/fem arse ASD
  asen n ass: donkey CDC
  esel/æsel n ass: donkey CDC
Swedish: ars n.masc arse ASD
  åsna n ass: donkey CDC
E-Germanic  
Gothic: asilus n ass: donkey CDC
Italic  
Latin: asinus n.masc ass: donkey W7
  cynosura n.fem Ursa Minor W7
  sciurus n.masc squirrel W7
Vulgar Latin: scuriolus n.masc small squirrel W7
  scurius n.masc squirrel W7
New Latin: Anthurium prop.n (genus name for) anthurium AHD
  Anura n (order of) frogs/toads AHD
  eremurus adj solitary W7
  oxyuriasis n.fem pinworm disease/infestation W7
  Oxyuris n.fem (genus of) worm W7
  trichuriasis n.fem whipworm disease/infestation W7
  Trichuris n.fem (genus of) worm W7
  -urus sfx having a tail W7
Portuguese: asno n ass: donkey CDC
  doudo adj silly, stupid W7
Spanish: asno n ass: donkey CDC
Old French: asne n ass: donkey CDC
Middle French: cynosure n.fem cynosure W7
  esquireul n.masc squirrel W7
French: âne n.masc ass: donkey CDC
Provençal: asne n ass: donkey CDC
Italian: asino n ass: donkey CDC
Baltic  
Old Prussian: asilis n ass: donkey CDC
Lithuanian: asilas n ass: donkey CDC
Slavic  
Polish: osieł/osioł n ass: donkey CDC
Czech: osel n ass: donkey CDC
Old Church Slavonic: osĭlŭ n ass: donkey CDC
Russian: oselŭ n ass: donkey CDC
Hellenic  
Greek: κῠνόσ-ουρα n.fem cynosure, lit. dog's tail LS
  ʼόνος n.masc/fem ass: donkey CDC/LS
  ʼόρρος n.masc arse LRC
  οὐρά n.fem tail LRC
Armenian  
Armenian: oṙ n arse LRC

 

Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
adj=adjective
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
n=noun
prop=proper
sfx=suffix

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
LS=Liddell and Scott: Greek-English Lexicon, 7th-9th ed's (1882-1940), rev.
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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