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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: g̑ā̆r-   'to call, cry'

Semantic Fields: to Call, Summon; to Cry, Weep


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: fo-gur n sound GED
  for-con-gur n command GED
  gāir/gairm n shout GED
Gaelic: sluagh-ghairm n.masc army cry W7
Welsh: gawr n shouting GED
Old English: cear adj anxious, sorrowful LRC
  ceari(g)/ceareg adj chary, worried, sorrowful GED/ASD
  ceari(g)an/carian vb.wk to care, mourn GED/ASD
  cearm/cyrm n.masc charm, shout, noise GED
  cearo/c(e)aru n.fem care, grief, sorrow ASD
Middle English: care n care W7
  charme n charm W7
  chary adj chary W7
English: care n grief, suffering in mind AHD/W7
  charm n chanting/reciting of magic spell GED
  chary adj dear, treasured AHD/W7
  garrulous adj talkative, chattering AHD/W7
  slogan n war cry/gathering word AHD/W7
  slogorn n war cry/gathering word AHD/W7
Old Saxon: kara n.fem care, sorrow, mourning GED
  karōn vb.wk to care, mourn GED
  mōd-karag adj sad GED
Old High German: chara n.str.fem care, mourning GED
  charag adj sad, chary GED
  charōn vb.wk to care, mourn GED
  kara n care, lament W7
Middle High German: kar n.fem care, sorrow ASD
German: karg adj stingy GED
Old Icelandic: kārna vb to be in despair GED
  kǫr n.fem sickbed GED
Norwegian: karra vb to cackle GED
Swedish: kära adj chary TLL
Gothic: *ga-karon vb.wk.II to care for GED
  kara n.fem care GED
  *karon vb.wk.II to care, be concerned GED
  un-karja adj careless, without attention GED
Latin: garrio, garrīre vb to chatter W7
  garriō vb to prattle GED
  garrulus adj bird that chatters W7
Hesychius' Greek Lexicon: γαρριώμεθα vb to rail at GED
Greek: γη̃ρυς n voice GED
Armenian: cicaṙn vb to swallow GED
  cicaṙnuk n nightingale GED
Ossetic: zar n song GED
  zarun vb to sing GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
II=class 2
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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