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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: g̑ēi-, g̑ī-   'to sprout'

Semantic Field: to Grow


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: cēn n.masc torch; (name for) C/K-rune IEW/ASD
  cīnan, cān, cinon, cinen vb.str to gape, break into chinks W7/ASD
  cine/cīne/cȳne n.fem chink, crack W7/ASD
  cīð/cȳþ n.masc chit, bud, sprig IEW/ASD
Middle English: chin n chink, crack W7
  kide n kid W7
  scion n scion W7
English: chink n small rent/cleft/fissure AHD/W7
  chit n shoot, sprout ASD/W2I
  Chithing prop.n Bree calendar's April in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  kid n young goat AHD/W7
  scion n shoot, twig AHD/W7
Dutch: keen n.fem chink ASD
Old Saxon: kīð n.masc chit IEW
Old High German: chīnan vb to sprout, split open W7
Runic: kēnaz n torch; (name for) K-rune LRC
Old Norse: kið n kid, young animal AHD/W7
Old French: cion n.masc scion LRC
Middle French: scion n.masc scion W7
French: scion n.masc scion, tip (of rod) LRC
Lithuanian: žíedas n.masc blossom, flower LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W2I=Webster's New International Dictionary of the English Language, 2nd ed. (1959)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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