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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. gel-   'to curl, form into ball; round'

Semantic Field: Round (adj)

 

Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Celtic  
Welsh: elain n hind GED
Gaulish: galba n very fat man GED
English  
Old English: æt-clīðende vb.pres.ptc adhering LRC
  cælf, calfur n calf (bovine) GED
  calf/ce(a)lf n calf (bovine) GED
  ceolbor n.fem female lamb GED
  ceolbor-lomb n.neut female lamb GED
  cild n.neut child W7/IEW
  clǣg n clay W7
  clāþ n.masc cloth, [pl.] clothes KEW/ASD
  clawu n.fem claw, hoof IEW
  *clēat n cleat W7
  cliewe/clywe n.fem clew IEW/ASD
  cli(e)wen/clywen/cleowen n.neut clew, globe IEW/ASD
  clif/clyf/cleof n.neut cliff, rock RPN/ASD
  clim(b)an/climmian vb to climb W7/ASD
  climman vb to clamber IEW
  clingan, clang, clungon, clungen vb.str to cling IEW/ASD
  cli(o)fian/clyfian/cleofian vb to cleave W7/ASD
  clodd n clod IEW
  clūd n.masc hill, mass of rock RPN/ASD
  clūt n.masc clout, patch, piece of metal IEW/ASD
  clyccan vb to clutch IEW/W7
  colt n.masc colt IEW/ASD
  (g)ealla n.masc gall, sore on horse ODE/ASD
Middle English: calf n calf W7
  child n child W7
  clambren vb to clamber W7
  claspe n clasp W7
  clawe n claw W7
  clay n clay W7
  clenchen vb to clench W7
  clete n cleat, wedge W7
  clevien vb to cleave W7
  clewe n clew W7
  clif n cliff W7
  climben vb to climb W7
  clingen vb to cling W7
  clod n clod W7
  cloth n cloth W7
  clout n clout W7
  clubbe n club W7
  clucchen vb to clutch W7
  culp(e) n kelp W2I
  galle n gall W7
  glu n glue W7
English: agglutinate vb to fasten, cause to adhere AHD/W7
  calf, calves n young bovine(s) W7
  calf n hind part of leg below knee W7
  child, children n infant, young person IEW/W7
  clamber vb to climb, scramble up IEW
  clammy adj damp soft and sticky IEW/W7
  clasp n hook/device for holding things together W7
  clasp vb to grasp, embrace, fasten with clasp IEW/W7
  claw n sharp nail on toe of animal IEW/W7
  clay n earthy material: plastic if moist but hard after firing AHD/W7
  cleat n wedge-like fitting/fastener IEW/W7
  cleave, clove/clave vb.str/wk to cling, stick, adhere W7
  clench/clinch vb to clasp, fasten, ball (the fist) IEW
  clew n ball of thread/string/yarn IEW/W7
  cliff n precipice, steep rock face/slope RPN/ODE
  climb vb to rise, go/slope upward W7
  cling, clung vb.str to hold, adhere IEW/W7
  clod n lump/mass of earth/clay IEW/W7
  cloth n pliable fabric W7
  clothes n.pl garments LRC
  clothing n clothes W7
  cloud n billowy fog/mist/haze in sky IEW/W7
  clout n rag, piece of cloth/leather IEW/W7
  club n heavy stick, tapering staff IEW/W7
  clutch vb to grasp/hold with hand/claws IEW/W7
  colt n foal, young (male) horse IEW/W7
  conglutinate vb to unite via gummy substance AHD/W7
  deglutinate vb to unglue; loosen, separate AHD/CDC
  eland n African antelope GED
  gall n flaw; skin sore due to chafing W7
  gall n plant tissue swelling due to parasite W7
  gall vb to chafe, wear; vex, irritate W7
  gallnut n (plant) gall resembling nut W7
  gley n sticky clay under surface of waterlogged soils AHD/W7
  gliadin n simple protein found in grain AHD/W7
  globe n something round/spherical W7
  glue n protein with adhesive properties AHD/W7
  gluten n elastic protein in flour giving dough cohesiveness AHD/W7
  glutinous adj gluey, gummy AHD/W7
  kelp n (ashes of) seaweed IEW/W2I
  klipspringer n small agile African antelope AHD
  klutz n clumsy/stupid person LRC
  mesoglea n gelatinous substance between endoderm/ectoderm AHD/W7
  neuroglia n supporting tissue intermingled with.essential elements of nervous tissue esp. in.brain, spinal cord, and ganglia AHD/W7
  zooglea n mass formed by bacteria in fluid rich in organic material AHD/W7
Scots English: claith/clayth n cloth ASD
W-Germanic  
Old Frisian: klad/klath/kleth n.neut cloth ASD
  klai n clay ASD
Frisian: klaed n cloth ASD
  klaey n clay ASD
Old Frankish: calf n calf (bovine) GED
Middle Dutch: galle n gall, sore on horse ODE
  klippe n cliff, rock AHD
Dutch: eland n elk, eland GED
  kalf n calf (bovine) TLL
  klauw n claw TLL
  kleed n.neut cloth ASD
  kleeren n clothes TLL
  kleeven vb to cleave, adhere ASD
  klei n.fem clay ASD
  klip n.fem cliff, rock ASD
  kloot n.masc clod, rock, hill ASD
  kl(o)uwen n.neut clew ASD
  kluit n.fem rock, hill ASD
Afrikaans: klipspringer n klipspringer AHD
Old Saxon: clif/klif n.neut cliff RPN/ASD
  klibōn vb to cleave, adhere ASD
Middle Low German: galle n gall, sore on horse ODE
Low German: klint n cliff, rock RPN
Old High German: chalb n.str.neut calf (bovine) GED
  chalba n.fem female calf GED
  chalbire n.dat.sg calf (bovine) GED
  clep n cliff, rock ASD
  cliuwi n.neut clew ASD
  kilbur n.neut female lamb GED
  kilburra n.fem female lamb GED
  klāftra n.fem fathom GED
  klebēn/klebjan vb to cleave, adhere ASD
  kliuwa n.fem clew ASD
  klīwa n bran W7
  kloz n.masc clod, lump, mass ASD
Middle High German: galle n gall, flaw, fault ODE
  kleit n.neut cloth ASD
  kliuwel n.neut clew ASD
  klōz n.masc clod, lump, block ASD
German: Kalb n.neut calf (bovine) LRC
  Klafter n.masc fathom LRC
  Klaue n claw TLL
  Klei/Klai n.masc clay ASD
  kle(i)ben vb to cleave, adhere ASD
  Kleid n.neut cloth; frock, dress ASD/TLL
  Kleider n.neut.pl clothes TLL
  Klippe n.fem cliff, crag, rock RPN/ASD
  klosz n.masc rock, hill ASD
  Klotz n.masc brick, block; klutz LRC
Yiddish: klots n klutz LRC
N-Germanic  
Old Norse: galli n gall, flaw, fault ODE
  kleggi n.masc clay ASD
  klubba n club, cudgel IEW
Old Icelandic: kalfi n.masc calf (of leg) GED
  kalfr n.masc calf (bovine) GED
  klāpr n.masc box GED
  kleif n cliff, ridge RPN
  klettr n cliff, rock RPN
  klé n stone to steady a loom RPN
  klif n cliff RPN
  klǫpp n stepping-stone GED
Icelandic: klif n.neut cliff ASD
  klōt n.neut knob on sword's hilt ASD
  klæði n.neut cloth ASD
Danish: kalv n calf (bovine) TLL
  klippe n.masc/fem cliff, rock ASD
  klo n claw TLL
  klode n.masc/fem clod, ball ASD
  klæder n.pl clothes TLL
  kläde n.neut cloth ASD
  kläg/kleg n clay ASD
Middle Swedish: galle n gall, flaw, fault ODE
Swedish: kalv n calf (bovine) TLL
  klippa n.fem cliff, rock ASD
  klo n claw TLL
  klot n.neut clod, rock, hill ASD
  kläde n.neut cloth ASD
  kläder n.pl clothes TLL
  klädning n dress, clothing TLL
E-Germanic  
Gothic: inkilþō adj with child LRC
  *kalbo n.fem calf (bovine) GED
Italic  
Latin: agglutino, agglutinare, agglutinavi, agglutinatus vb to glue to W7
  conglutino, conglutinare, conglutinavi, conglutinatus vb to glue together W7
  galla n.fem gall(nut) IEW
  gleba n.fem clump of earth GED
  globus n.masc globe, heap GED
  gluten n.neut glue W7
  glutino, glutināre vb to glue W7
  glutinosus adj having consistency of glue W7
Late Latin: glūs, glūtis n.fem glue W7
New Latin: neuroglia n.fem supporting tissue intermingled with the essential elements of nervous tissue W7
  zooglea n.fem gelatinous mass of bacteria growing fluid W7
Spanish: galla n gall(nut) ODE
Old French: galle n gall(nut) ODE
  galler vb to gall, rub, scratch ODE
Middle French: globe n globe W7
  glu n.fem glue W7
  glutineux adj glutinous W7
Italian: gala n gall(nut) ODE
Baltic  
Lithuanian: élnis n deer GED
  glėbti vb to embrace, surround GED
Slavic  
Polish: głaz n rock RPN
Russian: glaz n stone RPN
  gleĭ n clay W7
Hellenic  
Greek: ʼέλαφος n deer GED
Late Greek: glia n.fem glue W7
  gloios n.masc glue W7
Medieval Greek: gloea n.fem glue W7
Armenian  
Armenian: ełn n hind GED

 

Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
adj=adjective
dat=dative (case)
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
n=noun
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)
pres=present (tense)
ptc=participle
sg=singular (number)
str=strong (inflection)
vb=verb
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
KEW=Gerhard Köbler: Altenglisches Wörterbuch, 2nd ed. (2003)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
ODE=C.T. Onions: The Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology (1966)
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W2I=Webster's New International Dictionary of the English Language, 2nd ed. (1959)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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