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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. g̑en-, g̑enə-, g̑nē-, g̑nō-   'to ken, know, recognize'

Semantic Field: to Know


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: ad-gninim vb to know, recognize LRC
  gnāth vb.ptc known GED
Old English: can vb.1/ know(s) W7
  cēne/cȳne adj keen, bold, brave OED/ASD
  cennan vb to ken, make known W7
  cnāwan, cnēow, cnēowon, cnāwen vb.str to know, recognize, understand GED/RPN
  cunnan vb to know, be able (to) GED
  cūþ adj known, familiar GED
  cȳðan vb.wk to make known GED
  oncnāwan, oncnēow, oncnēowon, oncnāwen vb.str to know, recognize, acknowledge AHD/ASD
  uncūþ adj strange, uncouth, uncertain GED/ASD
Middle English: aknouen vb to know, recognize AHD
  aquainten vb to acquaint W7
  can vb.1/ can, know(s) W7
  cognicioun n cognition W7
  cointe adj quaint W7
  conisaunce n cognizance W7
  connen vb to know, learn, study W7
  cunnen vb to know W7
  cunning adj cunning W7
  kene adj keen, brave W7
  kennen vb to ken W7
  knowen vb to know W7
  knowlechen vb to acknowledge W7
  knowlege n knowledge W7
  noble adj noble W7
  noten vb to note W7
  notice n notice W7
  phisonomie n physiognomy W7
  prothonotarie n prothonotary W7
  uncouth adj uncouth W7
English: abnormal adj deviating from norm/average AHD/W7
  acknowledge vb.trans to own/admit knowledge of AHD/W7
  acquaint vb.trans to cause to know personally AHD/W7
  agnosia n inability to recognize AHD
  annotate vb to make/furnish critical/explanatory notes/comment AHD/W7
  can vb.mod to know, understand, be able AHD/W7
  cognition n knowing, including awareness/judgment AHD/W7
  cognizance n distinguishing mark/emblem AHD/W7
  con vb.trans to peruse, study/examine closely AHD/W7
  connoisseur n expert AHD/W7
  connote vb.trans to suggest AHD/W7
  couth adj refined, polished, sophisticated AHD/W7
  couth n refinement, sophistication AHD
  cunning adj exhibiting skill AHD/W7
  diagnosis n act/art of identifying disease from signs/symptoms AHD/W7
  enormous adj abnormal, inordinate AHD/W7
  Gnome prop.n Deep (wise) Elf in early editions of Tolkien: The Hobbit LRC
  gnome n maxim, aphorism AHD/W7
  gnomon n object serving as indicator by position/length of shadow AHD/W7
  gnosis n knowledge of spiritual truth attainable through faith AHD/W7
  Gnostic prop.n adherent of Gnosticism (belief that salvation comes through knowledge) LRC
  ignorant adj not knowing, lacking knowledge/education AHD
  ignore vb.trans to refuse to notice AHD/W7
  incognito adv with concealed identity AHD/W7
  keen adj wise, clever; sharp, cutting OED/W7
  ken vb to see, know, perceive AHD/W7
  kenning n metaphorical phrase used in poetry AHD/W7
  know, knew, known vb.str to perceive directly AHD/W7
  knowledge n cognizance AHD/W7
  narrate vb.trans to relate, recite details AHD/W7
  noble adj illustrious, possessing outstanding qualities AHD/W7
  norm n model, authoritative standard AHD/W7
  normal adj perpendicular AHD/W7
  note n song, melody AHD/W7
  note vb.trans to notice/observe with care AHD/W7
  notice n announcement, warning/intimation of something AHD/W7
  notion n inclusive general concept AHD/W7
  notorious adj generally known/talked of AHD/W7
  pathognomonic adj distinctively characteristic of particular disease AHD/W7
  physiognomy n art of discovering character/temperament from outward appearance AHD/W7
  prognosis n prospect of recovery anticipated from usual disease course/peculiarities of case AHD/W7
  prothonotary n chief clerk of court of law AHD/W7
  quaint adj skilled, expert AHD/W7
  recognize vb.trans to perceive as something previously known AHD/W7
  reconnaissance n preliminary survey AHD/W7
  reconnoiter vb to make preliminary survey AHD/W7
  uncouth adj rare, uncommon, unknown/unfamiliar AHD/W7
British English: recognise vb.trans to recognize LRC
Old Frisian: kētha vb.wk to make known GED
  kunna vb to ken, be able (to) GED
  kuth/ku(n)d adj known ASD
Dutch: kan vb.1/ can TLL
  kennen vb to ken ASD
  koen adj keen, bold ASD
  kon vb.pret.1/ knew, was able TLL
  kond adj known ASD
  kunnen vb to be able TLL
Old Saxon: cūðean vb.wk to make known GED
  kūð adj known GED
  kunnan vb to know, be able (to) GED
Old Low German: kundan vb.wk to make known GED
Old High German: bichnāan vb to recognize W7
  chnāan vb to ken, know GED
  chund adj known GED
  cnuodelen vb to indicate recognition GED
  kan vb.1/ can, am/is able; ken(s), know(s) W7
  knājan vb to ken, know ASD
  kōn(i)/kuon(i) adj keen, bold ASD
  kund vb.ptc known W7
  kunden/kund(j)an vb.wk to make known GED/ASD
  kunnan vb to know, be able (to) GED
  kunnēn vb to know how, be able RPN
  un-kund adj strange, unknown ASD
Middle High German: kennen vb to ken ASD
  küene/kuon adj keen, bold ASD
  künden vb to make known ASD
  kunnen vb to know, be able (to) ASD
  kunt adj known ASD
German: kann vb.1/ can, am/is able; know(s) TLL
  kennen vb to ken ASD
  können vb to know how, be able (to) ASD
  kühn adj keen, bold ASD
  kund adj known ASD
  künden vb to make known ASD
Old Norse: kenna vb to ken, recognize W7
  kenning n metaphorical word/phrase (Norse poetry) W7
  knā vb to know how, be able CGo
  knār adj brave, capable CGo
  kunna vb to know, be able (to) ASD
Old Icelandic: kunna vb to know, understand GED/RPN
  kunnr/kūþr adj known GED
  ū-kūðr adj unknown GED
Icelandic: kenna vb to ken, teach ASD
  knā vb to know ASD
  kunnr/kuðr adj known ASD
  kynna vb to make known ASD
  ū-kunnr adj unknown ASD
Danish: kan vb.1/ can, am/is able TLL
  kunne vb to be able TLL
  kynde vb to make known ASD
Swedish: kan vb.1/ can, am/is able TLL
  kunna vb to make known ASD
Gothic: *fra-kunþs adj despised GED
  ga-kunnan vb to subject (someone) GED
  kannjan vb to make known RPN
  kunnan vb.ptpr.III to know GED
  kunþi n.str.neut knowledge LRC
  kunþjan vb to make known ASD
  kunþs adj/n known; acquaintance LRC
  swi-kunþs adj manifest GED
  uf-kunnan vb to recognize, experience GED
  un-kunþs adj strange, unknown GED
Crimean Gothic: knauen adj good CGo
Latin: annoto, annotare, annotavi, annotatus vb to observe, remark, annotate W7
  cognatio, cognationis n.fem kindred, blood-relations LRC
  cognitio, cognitionis n.fem acquaintance with W7
  cognomentum, cognomenti n.neut surname LRC
  cognosco, cognoscere, cognovi, cognitus vb to know, become acquainted with W7
  enormis adj huge W7
  gnarus adj knowing W7
  gnomon n.neut judgement, opinion, belief W7
  (g)nosco, (g)noscere, (g)nōvi, (g)nōtum vb to know, recognize, become acquainted with LRC
  ignarus adj ignorant, unknown W7
  īgnōrō, īgnōrāre, īgnōrāvi, īgnōrātum vb to ignore, be unknown LRC
  ignotus, ignota, ignotum adj unknown LRC
  incognitus adj unknown W7
  narro, narrare, narravi, narratus vb to narrate, tell a story W7
  nobilis, nobilis, nobile adj famous, noble LRC
  nobilitas, nobilitatis n.fem renown LRC
  norma n.fem rule, carpenter's square W7
  normalis adj according to the measure W7
  nota n.fem mark, note W7
  notarius n.masc notary, secretary W7
  notio, notionis n.fem faculty of knowing, thing known W7
  notitia, notitiae n.fem acquaintance, familiarity, carnal knowledge LRC
  noto, notare vb to mark, note W7
  recognosco, recognoscere vb to recognize W7
Late Latin: abnormis adj abnormal AHD
  accognosco, accognoscere, accognovi, accognitus vb to know perfectly W7
  gnosticus adj Gnostic W7
  normalis adj normal W7
  notorium n.neut information, indictment W7
  notorius adj known W7
  physiognomia, physiognomonia n.fem physiognomy W7
  prognosis n.fem prognosis, evaluation W7
  protonotarius n.masc chief clerk of court of law W7
Medieval Latin: accognito, accognitare vb to get acquainted W7
  adcognito, adcognitare vb to acquaint AHD
  anormalis adj abnormal W7
  connoto, connotare vb to connote W7
  notorius adj known, famous W7
New Latin: diagnosis n.fem diagnosis W7
Old French: acointier vb to acquaint W7
  cointe adj.fem known, familiar, nice W7
  connoisseor n.masc connoisseur W7
  connoistre, conoistre vb to know W7
  conoissance n.fem cognizance, knowledge W7
  noble adj noble W7
  noter vb to note W7
Middle French: notice n.fem acquaintance W7
  phisonomie n.fem physiognomy W7
  reconoissance n.fem recognition W7
  reconoistre, reconoiss- vb to recognize W7
French: anormal adj abnormal W7
  connaisseur n.masc connoisseur W7
  ignorer vb to ignore, not know W7
  reconnaissance n.fem gratitude, exploration W7
  reconnaître vb to recognize W7
Italian: incognito adj/n.masc unknown (person) W7
Old Prussian: ersinnat vb to recognize GED
  posinnat vb to recognize LRC
Lithuanian: pa-žìnti vb to recognize GED
  pa-žintìs n acquaintance GED
  žinóti, žìno, žinójo vb to know LRC
Latvian: zinât vb to know LRC
Old Church Slavonic: znamenьje n.neut sign LRC
  znajǫ, znati vb to know GED/RPN
Russian: znatь vb to know LRC
Albanian: njoh vb to know GED/RPN
Homeric Greek: ἀγνοέω vb to fail to recognize LRC
  ἀγνώς adj unknown LRC
  ʼάγνωστος adj unrecognized, unrecognizable LRC
Greek: agnōsia n ignorance AHD
  gignōskein vb to come to know W7
  γι(γ)νώσκω vb to know, learn LRC
  gnōmē n.fem opinion, knowledge W7
  gnōmonikos adj fit to judge W7
  gnōmōn n.masc interpreter W7
  γνω̃σις n.fem knowledge LRC
  gnōstikos adj of knowledge W7
  γνωτός vb.past.pass.ptc known, perceived GED/RPN
  διαγιγνώσκω vb to discern, distinguish LRC
  diagnōsis n.fem diagnosis W7
  ʼέγνων vb.aor I understand RPN
  pathognōmonikos adj distinctively characteristic of a particular disease W7
  progignōskein vb to know before W7
  prognōsis n.fem foreknowledge W7
  physiognōmonia n.fem judgement of character by features W7
  physiognōmōn adj judging character by features W7
Armenian: an-can adj unknown GED/RPN
  caneay vb.aor knew, recognized GED/RPN
Old Persian: a-dānā he knew LRC
Avestan: ā-zaintiš n information GED
  zan- vb to know RPN
  zānāiti vb to know GED
Khowar: noik vb to appear, become visible RPN
Sanskrit: jānā́ti vb to know, recognize, have knowledge GED/RPN
  jñātáḥ vb.ptc known, perceived, acquainted RPN
  jñā-tí-ḥ n knowledge RPN
  jñātram n capability of recognizing GED
  jñāyante they know GED
Tokharian: knā- vb to know, recognize GED
Tocharian B: a-knātsa adj unknown RPN
Tocharian A: ā-knats adj unknown; ignorant RPN
  kña- vb to be acquainted with RPN
  knān- vb to know, recognize RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
1=1st person
3=3rd person
III=class 3
aor=aorist (tense)
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pass=passive (voice)
past=past (tense)
pl=plural (number)
pret=preterite (tense)
ptpr=preterite-present (verb)
sg=singular (number)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CGo=MacDonald Stearns, Jr: Crimean Gothic (1978)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
OED=James A.H. Murray et al: The Oxford English Dictionary (1933)
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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