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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: gerebh-   'to carve, scratch; write'

Semantic Fields: to Carve; to Rub; to Write


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: ceorfan vb to cut, carve RPN
  crabba n.masc crab W7/ASD
  cyrf n kerf, (action of) cutting RPN
Middle English: crabbe n crab (marine crustacean) W7
  crawlen vb to crawl W7
  crevis n crayfish W7
  epigrame n epigram W7
  graffe n graft W7
  graffen/graften vb to graft W7
  gramere n grammar W7
  kerf n kerf W7
  kerven vb to carve W7
  topographie n topography W7
English: agrapha n sayings of Jesus in early, non-canonical Christian writings AHD/W7
  agraphia n dysgraphia AHD
  anagram n word/phrase spelled via letter transposition from another word/phrase AHD/W7
  carve vb to cut with care/precision AHD/W7
  crab n broadly built marine crustacean AHD/W7
  crawl vb to creep, move slowly with body close to ground AHD/W7
  crayfish n small freshwater crustacean resembling lobster AHD/W7
  diagram n line drawing for mathematical/scientific purposes AHD/W7
  dysgraphia n inability to write LRC
  epigram n poem dealing concisely/pointedly/satirically with single thought/event AHD/W7
  epigraph n engraved inscription AHD/W7
  glamo(u)r n spell, magic, illusion, enchantment AHD/W7
  graffito n rude drawing/inscription on rock/wall AHD/W7
  graft vb to cause (scion) to unite with stock AHD/W7
  -gram n.sfx drawing, writing, record AHD/W7
  gram n metric unit of mass AHD/W7
  grammar n study of word/sentence use in language AHD/W7
  graph n something drawn/written AHD/W7
  -grapher n.sfx one who writes AHD/W7
  graphic adj drawn/written/engraved AHD/W7
  graphite n soft black lustrous carbon used in pencils etc. AHD/W7
  -graphy n.sfx writing/representation AHD/W7
  iconography n illustration by pictures/other visual representations AHD/W7
  kerf n slit/notch made by saw/cutting torch AHD/W7
  landgrave n German count having territorial jurisdiction AHD/W7
  margrave n military governor of German border province AHD/W7
  odograph n instrument for recording course/distance traveled AHD
  pal(a)eography n (study of) scripts/writing from former eras TLL
  palsgrave n count palatine, lit. count (of a) palace AHD/W7
  paragraph n one/more sentences in written composition AHD/W7
  parallelogram n quadrilateral with parallel opposite sides of equal length AHD/W7
  plethysmograph n instrument measuring variation in body part size based on blood volume AHD
  plutography n media describing lives of rich/famous people AHD
  program n public notice AHD/W7
  prosopography n statistical study describing people/characters in context AHD
  pseudepigrapha n apocrypha AHD/W7
  topography n position/elevation depiction on maps/charts AHD/W7
Scots English: glamour n glamor W7
Old Frisian: kerva vb to carve RPN
Frisian: kerven vb to carve ASD
Middle Dutch: marcgrave n margrave W7
Dutch: kerven vb to carve ASD
  krab n.fem crab ASD
  kreeft n crayfish; lobster TLL
  markgraaf n margrave W7
  paltsgrave n palsgrave W7
Old High German: chrëpazo n.masc crab ASD
  grāvo n count W7
  krebiz n crab W7
  marcgrāvo n margrave, lit. boundary count W7
Middle High German: kerban/kerben vb to carve, notch RPN
  krebez n.masc crab ASD
German: Graf n.masc count LRC
  Graphit n graphite W7
  kerben vb to carve ASD
  Krabbe n.fem crab ASD
  Krebs n.masc cancer ASD
  Landgraf n landgrave W7
  Markgraf n.masc margrave LRC
  Pfaltzgraf n.masc palsgrave LRC
Old Norse: krabbi n crab KNW
  krafla vb to crawl W7
Old Icelandic: krota vb to engrave RPN
  kurfr n chip, cut-off piece RPN
Icelandic: krabbi n.masc crab ASD
Danish: biograf n cinema TLL
  karve vb to carve ASD
  krabbe n crab ASD
  krebs n crayfish TLL
Swedish: biograf n cinema TLL
  karfva vb to carve ASD
  krabba n.fem crab ASD
  kräfta n crayfish TLL
Latin: epigramma, epigrammatis n.fem epigram W7
  -gramma sfx letter W7
  grammatica n.fem grammar W7
  -graphia sfx action of writing W7
  graphicus adj of writing W7
  graphium n.neut stylus W7
  -graphum sfx writing W7
  karabus n.masc crab ASD
Late Latin: gramma n.neut a small weight W7
  -graphus sfx writer W7
  parallelogrammum n.neut parallelogram W7
  topographia n.fem topography, study of landscape W7
Medieval Latin: paragraphus n.masc sign marking a paragraph W7
New Latin: anagramma, anagrammatis n.neut anagram, transposition of letters W7
  pseudepigrapha manuscripts falsely ascribed to an author, apocrypha W7
Middle French: anagramme n.fem anagram W7
  grafe n.masc stylus W7
  gramaire n.fem grammar, grammar book, book of sorcery W7
  -graphe sfx writing or drawing W7
  paragraphe n.masc paragraph W7
French: gramme n.masc unit of weight W7
  -graphe sfx suffix indicating writing W7
  programme n.masc agenda, public notice W7
Italian: graffito n graffito W7
Greek: agraphos adj unwritten W7
  anagrammatizein vb to transpose letters W7
  anagrammatismos n.masc anagram W7
  gramma, grammatos n.neut letter W7
  γραμματεύς n.masc scribe LRC
  grammatikē n.fem grammar W7
  grammatikos adj of letters W7
  grammē n.fem line W7
  grapheion n.neut stylus W7
  γραφή n.fem writing, scripture LRC
  -graphia afx writing W7
  γραφικη̃ n.fem painting LRC
  graphikos adj of writing W7
  -graphon afx written W7
  -graphos afx writer W7
  γράφω vb to write LRC
  diagramma n.neut a drawing, a plan W7
  diagraphein vb to mark out by lines W7
  eikonographein vb to describe W7
  eikonographia n.fem sketch, description W7
  epigramma n.neut epigram W7
  epigraphein vb to inscribe W7
  epigraphē n.fem inscription W7
  paragraphein vb to write alongside W7
  paragraphos n.masc line used to mark change of persons in a dialogue W7
  parallelogrammon n.neut parallelogram W7
  parallelogrammos adj bound by parallel lines W7
  programma n.neut public notice W7
  prographein vb to write before W7
  topographein vb to describe a place W7
  topographia n.fem topography W7
  pseudepigrapha writings falsely ascribed to an author W7
  pseudepigraphos adj falsely ascribed W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
KNW=Gerhard Köbler: Altnordisches Wörterbuch, 2nd ed. (2003)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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