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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: ghebh-el-, ghebh-el-, ghebh-elo-   'gable, head'

Semantic Field: Wall


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Middle English: gable n gable W7
English: cephalic adj re: head AHD/W7
  cephal(o)- pfx head AHD
  -cephalous sfx head AHD
  encephal(o)- pfx brain AHD/W7
  gable n vertical triangular end of building from cornice/eaves to ridge AHD/W7
  hydrocephalus n abnormal increase of cerebrospinal fluid in head AHD/W7
  pachycephalosaur n herbivorous dinosaur with thick domed skull AHD
  scaphocephalic adj boat-shaped, re: long narrow skull deformity AHD
Old Saxon: giƀilla n.str.masc skull, head, gable GED/RPN
Middle Low German: gevel n.str.masc gable GED/RPN
Old High German: gebal n.str.masc skull, head, gable GED/RPN
  gibil n.str.masc gable GED/RPN
  gibilla n.str.masc skull, head, gable GED/RPN
German: Giebel n.masc gable RPN
Old Icelandic: gafl n.str.masc gable, gable-side GED/RPN
Faeroese: gavlur n gable RPN
Norwegian: gavl n gable-side RPN
Swedish: gavel n transverse wall, partition RPN
Gothic: *gibla n.masc gable, pinnacle GED
Latin: cephalicus adj re: head W7
Late Latin: hydrocephalus adj with water in head W7
Middle French: céphalique adj re: head W7
Macedonian Greek: κεβαλή n head, front; end, point GED/RPN
Greek: κεφαλή n.fem head, front, point GED/RPN
  kephalikos adj of the head W7
  hydrokephalos adj hydrocephalus W7
Tocharian B: śpālmeṃ adj superior, excellent RPN
  śpālu adj superior, excellent RPN
Tocharian A: śpāl- n skull, head GED/RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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