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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. g̑hel-   'to cut?'

Semantic Field: to Cut


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Welsh: gylym n knife, dagger GED/RPN
Old English: gelte n young sow W7
  gielde adj unfruitful, not producing milk GED
  gielm n.masc sheaf GED
Middle English: gelden vb to geld W7
  gelding n gelding W7
  gylte n gilt W7
English: geld, gelt vb.wk.trans to castrate AHD/W7
  gelding n castrated animal, eunuch AHD/W7
  gilt n young female pig AHD/W7
Middle Low German: galt adj unfruitful, not producing milk GED
Old High German: galt adj unfruitful, not producing milk GED
Middle German: gelde adj unfruitful, not producing milk GED
Old Norse: gelda n gelding W7
  geldingr n gelding W7
  gyltr n young sow W7
Old Icelandic: gelda vb to geld RPN
  geldr adj unfruitful, not producing milk GED
Old Swedish: galder adj unfruitful, not producing milk GED
Gothic: Galtis prop.n Galtis: city in Transylvania GED
  gilþa n.fem sickle GED/RPN
Rumanian: Ungra prop.n village in Romania GED
Lithuanian: žúolis n tie, sleeper, piece of wood GED/RPN
Polish: ugor n fallow ground GED
Czech: úhor n fallow place GED
Bulgarian: ugarь n fallow place GED
Greek: γάλλος n.masc eunuch, priest of Cybele LRC
Armenian: jlem vb to plow GED/RPN
  joł n stick GED
Sanskrit: halá-ḥ n plow GED/RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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