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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 3. gher-, ghrē- : ghrō- : ghrə-   'to come out, jut out'

Semantic Field: to Stand


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Middle Irish: grenn n beard GED/RPN
Breton: grann n eyebrow RPN
Welsh: garth n hill, promontory RPN
  gran(n) n eyelid GED/RPN
Gaulish: *grěnnos n hair GED
Old English: granu n.fem moustache GED/RPN
Old High German: grana n.fem moustache GED
Middle High German: grane n moustache, hair on head RPN
  grans n beak, snout; peak RPN
  grāt n edge, ridge, mountain crest RPN
German: Grat n.masc ridge LRC
Old Norse: grǫn n.fem fir (tree) KNW
Old Icelandic: grǫn n.fem moustache GED/RPN
Danish: gran n fir (tree) TLL
Swedish: grån n.dial fir (tree) GED/RPN
Gothic: *grana n.fem pigtail GED/RPN
  granos pigtails GED/RPN
Old Spanish: greñon n beard GED
Spanish: greña n beard GED
Old French: grenon n beard GED
Polish: grot n arrow-point RPN
Old Church Slavonic: granь n tip, edge GED
Russian: gran' n brink, verge, border RPN
  graníca n border RPN
Albanian: krande n straw GED
Greek: χάρμη n tip, spearhead RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
acc=accusative (case)
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
pl=plural (number)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
KNW=Gerhard Köbler: Altnordisches Wörterbuch, 2nd ed. (2003)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)

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