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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: g̑hers-   'to stiffen, bristle, stand out'

Semantic Fields: Hard; to Stand


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: go(r)st n.masc gorse, bramble RPN
Middle English: abhorren vb to abhor W7
  gorst n gorse W7
  horrour n horror W7
  ordure n ordure W7
  urchin n urchin W7
English: abhor vb.trans to loathe, regard with repugnance AHD/W7
  arugula n rocket (salad crop) AHD
  gorse n furze (bush) AHD/W7
  hirsute adj roughly hairy AHD/W7
  hispid adj rough, covered by bristle/stiff hair/minute spines AHD/W7
  horrible adj dreadful, re: horror AHD
  horrid adj rough, bristling AHD/W7
  horripilation n goosebumps, hair bristling from fear/cold AHD
  horror n painful/intense fear/dread/dismay AHD/W7
  ordure n excrement AHD/W7
  orgeat n sweet almond-flavored syrup AHD/W7
  orzo n pasta shaped like barley pearls AHD
  rocket n yellowish flowered European herb AHD/W7
  urchin n hedgehog AHD/W7
Old High German: gersta n barley W7
Latin: abhorreō, abhorrēre vb to abhor, shudder W7
  ēr n.masc hedgehog W7
  ēricius n.masc beam set with spikes W7
  ērūca n.fem cabbage, colewort, arugula W7/CLD
  hirsutus adj hairy, shaggy, rough W7
  hispidus adj rough, hairy, bristly W7
  hordeum n.neut barley W7
  horreō, horrēre vb to bristle, tremble RPN
  horridus adj rough, shaggy, bristly RPN
  horror n.masc action of trembling, horror W7
Middle French: herichon n.masc hedgehog W7
  horror n.fem horror W7
  ord adj filthy W7
  ordure n.fem garbage W7
  orge n.masc barley W7
  roquette n.fem rocket W7
French: orgeat n.masc barley W7
Old Italian: rochetta n.fem.dim garden rocket W7
  ruca n.fem garden rocket W7
Greek: kri n.neut barley W7
  χέρσος adj/n dry (land) RPN
  chēr n.neut hedgehog W7
Sanskrit: harṣa-ḥ n bristling, erection (of hair) RPN
  hárṣati vb to bristle, become stiff/erect RPN
  hṛṣṭá-ḥ adj bristling, erect, stiff RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
CLD=Cassell's Latin Dictionary (1959, rev. 1968)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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