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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. ghrebh-   'to dig, grub, grave, scratch'

Semantic Fields: to Dig, Delve; to Rub


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: græf/graf n.str.neut grave GED/ASD
  græft n sculpture, carved object RPN
  grafan vb.str to grave, bury RPN/GED
  grafere n carver, sculptor RPN
  grafu n.fem hollow GED
Middle English: grave n grave W7
  graven vb to grave W7
  groof n groove W7
  grubbe n grub, insect W7
  grubben vb to dig, grub W7
English: engrave vb.trans to form (on wood/metal) by incision AHD/W7
  graben n depressed segment of earth's crust bounded on sides by faults AHD/W7
  grave n excavation for burial of body AHD/W7
  grave vb.trans to dig, excavate AHD/W7
  gravlax n salmon cured in salt/sugar/dill AHD
  gravure n process for producing printing plate on wood/copper AHD/W7
  groove n long narrow channel/depression AHD/W7
  grub n soft thick wormlike insect larva AHD/W7
  grub vb to clear by digging out roots/stumps AHD/W7
  Grubb prop.n hobbit surname in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Old Frisian: greb n grave ASD
  gref n.str.neut grave GED
  greva vb to grave GED
  grova vb to grovel GED
Old Saxon: (bi-)graƀan vb to grave ASD
  graf n.str.neut grave GED
Old High German: grab n grave W7
  graba n.wk.fem spade RPN/GED
  graban vb to grave, bury RPN
  graft/grefti n.fem carving, sculpture ASD
  grap n.str.neut grave GED
  grubilōn vb.wk to dig, bury GED
German: Grab n.neut grave ASD
  graben vb to grave, trench W7
Old Norse: grafa vb.str to grave, bury; inlay, engrave GED
Old Icelandic: grufla vb to grovel GED
  græfr adj to be buried GED
  grǫf n.fem grave, hollow GED
Icelandic: grafa vb to grave ASD
  graflax n gravlax LRC
  gröf n.fem grave ASD
Norwegian: gravlaks n gravlax LRC
  gruvla vb to grovel GED
Danish: gravlaks n gravlax LRC
  grævling n badger TLL
Swedish: grǣva vb to grave GED
  grävling n badger TLL
Gothic: *bi-graban vb.str.VI to surround (with a rampart) GED
  *graba n.fem rampart GED
  graban vb.str.VI to grave RPN/GED
  *grōba n.fem hole RPN/GED
  *uf-graban vb.str.VI to dig up GED
  *us-graban vb.str.VI to dig out RPN/GED
Middle French: engraver vb to engrave W7
French: gravure n.fem (art of) engraving W7
Lithuanian: grėbiu, grėbti vb to rake RPN
  grėblẽlis n rake RPN
Latvian: greblis n rake, scraper GED
  grebt vb to scrape, hollow out GED
Serbo-Croatian: grèbtsi vb to scratch RPN
Old Church Slavonic: greti, grebǫ, grebeši vb to scrape, scratch GED
  grobъ n.masc grave, ditch LRC
  pogreti, pogrebǫ, pogrebeši vb to bury LRC
Russian: grábli n rake RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
VI=class 6
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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