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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: ghreib-   'to grip, grab'

Semantic Field: to Grasp, Seize, Take Hold of


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: grāpian/grōpian vb.wk to grope W7/ASD
  grīpan, grāp, gripon, gripen vb.str.I to grasp, seize LRC
  grippan vb to grip W7
Middle English: gripen vb to gripe W7
  grippen vb to grip W7
  gropen vb to grope W7
English: Grip prop.n huge dog in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  grip n strong tenacious grasp; part/device for gripping W7
  grip vb.trans to seize firmly AHD/W7
  gripe vb to grip, seize AHD/W7
  grippe n flu/influenza: acute contagious febrile viral disease AHD/W7
  grope vb to feel about blindly/uncertainly in search AHD/W7
Old Frisian: grīpa vb to grasp, seize ASD
Old Saxon: grīpan vb to grasp, seize ASD
Old High German: greifon vb to grope, touch ASD
  grīfan vb to grasp W7
German: greifen vb to grip, grasp LRC
  Griff n.masc grip, handle LRC
  Grippe n.fem grippe LRC
Icelandic: grīpa vb to grasp, seize ASD
Gothic: greipan vb to grasp, seize ASD
French: grippe n.fem grippe W7
Lithuanian: griebti vb to seize, snatch, hold W7/LD
Latvian: gribēt, gribu, gribēju vb to want LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
I=class 1
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LD=Bronius Piesarskas and Bronius Svecevicius: Lithuanian Dictionary (1994)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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