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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: gā-, gem-   'to come, go'

Semantic Fields: to Come; to Go

 

Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
English  
Old English: becuman vb to come, become, happen W7/ASD
  cuma n.masc guest, stranger, visitor ASD
  cuman, cwōm, cwōmon, cumen vb.str.IV to come LRC
  wilcuma n.masc desirable guest/visitor ASD
  wilcume interj welcome ASD
Middle English: advent n advent W7
  amphibena n amphisbaena AHD
  aventure n adventure W7
  base n base W7
  basis n basis AHD
  becomen vb to come to, become W7
  comen vb to come W7
  convenen vb to convene W7
  convenient adj convenient W7
  conventicle n conventicle W7
  convention n convention W7
  covenant n covenant W7
  covent n convent W7
  covin n coven W7
  inventen vb to invent W7
  mesaventure n misadventure W7
  preventen vb to prevent W7
  revenue n revenue W7
  venyw n action of coming W7
  welcome/wilcume interj welcome W7
English: abasia n inability to walk AHD
  acrobat n one who performs gymnastic feats AHD/W7
  adiabatic adj occurring without heat gain/loss AHD/W7
  Advent prop.n penitential pre-Christmas season W7
  advent n coming, arrival AHD/W7
  adventitious adj added extrinsically, not innate/inherent AHD/W7
  adventure n undertaking involving danger/unknown risks AHD/W7
  amphisbaena n serpent with head at each end able to move in either direction (classical mythology) AHD/W7
  anabaena n freshwater algae AHD
  anabasis n advance, going/marching up AHD/W7
  avenue n opening/passageway to some place AHD/W7
  base n foundation, object's bottom viewed as its support AHD/W7
  basis n foundation, principal component AHD/W7
  batophobia n fear of passing tall building AHD
  become, became, become vb.str to come into existence AHD/W7
  bema n sanctuary, part of Eastern church containing altar AHD/W7
  circumvent vb.trans to hem in AHD/W7
  come, came, come vb.str to approach, move toward something AHD/W7
  contravene vb.trans to go/act contrary to AHD/W7
  convene vb to come together AHD/W7
  convenient adj proper, suitable AHD/W7
  convent n local house/community of religious order/congregation AHD/W7
  convent vb to convene AHD/W7
  conventicle n meeting, assembly AHD/W7
  convention n contract, agreement AHD/W7
  coven n band/assembly of (13) witches AHD/W7
  covenant n compact, formal/solemn/binding agreement AHD/W7
  diabase n diorite AHD/W7
  diabetes n condition involving abnormal levels of blood sugar AHD/W7
  event n occurrence, something that happens AHD/W7
  eventual adj contingent, conditional; ultimate AHD/W7
  intervene vb.intrans to enter/appear as irrelevant/extraneous feature/circumstance AHD/W7
  invent vb.trans to find, discover AHD/W7
  misadventure n mishap, misfortune AHD/W7
  overcome, overcame, overcome vb.str to overwhelm, overpower, get the better of W7
  parvenu n upstart, one who has recently/suddenly attained wealth/power AHD/W7
  prevenient adj antecedent, anticipatory AHD/W7
  prevent vb to anticipate/be ready for (some event) AHD/W7
  provenance n source, origin AHD/W7
  provenience n source, origin AHD
  revenant n one who returns after death/long absence AHD/W7
  revenue n income derived from investment AHD/W7
  souvenir n memento, something serving as reminder AHD/W7
  stereobate n masonry substructure visible above ground level AHD/W7
  stylobate n continuous flat coping/pavement on which row of columns is supported AHD/W7
  subvention n provision of assistance/financial support AHD/W7
  supervene vb.intrans to occur as additional/adventitious/unlooked-for development AHD/W7
  venire n writ issued by judge summoning jurors AHD
  venue n place/county where alleged events take place, from which legal action arises AHD/W7
  welcome interj used to express greeting to guest/newcomer upon arrival AHD/W7
W-Germanic  
Old Frisian: koma/kuma vb.str to come, arrive GED
Frisian: kommen vb to come ASD
Dutch: komen, kwam vb to come, came ASD/TLL
Old Saxon: cuman/kuman vb.str to come, arrive GED/ASD
Old High German: coman vb.str to come, arrive GED
  queman vb to come, go W7
  willicomo interj welcome ASD
  willicomo n desirable guest W7
Middle High German: komen vb to come ASD
German: kommen vb to come, arrive GED
  willkommen interj welcome LRC
N-Germanic  
Old Norse: koma vb to come, arrive; reach, obtain; occur LRC
Icelandic: koma vb to come ASD
Danish: komme vb to come ASD
Swedish: komma vb to come ASD
E-Germanic  
Gothic: *ana-qiman vb.str.IV to approach GED
  gaqumþs n.str.fem assembly, synagogue LRC
  *miþ-qiman vb.str.IV to go along with GED
  qiman vb.str.IV to come, arrive LRC
Crimean Gothic: kommen vb to come, arrive GED
Italic  
Latin: advenio, advenīre vb to arrive, come to someone W7
  adventicius adj coming from without W7
  adventus, adventūs n.masc arrival, coming LRC
  amphisbaena n.fem amphisbaena W7
  basis n.fem base, foundation W7
  circumvenio, circumvenire, circumvēnī, circumventus vb to encircle, circumvent W7
  conveniens, convenientis adj/vb.ptc convenient W7
  convenio, convenīre, convēnī, conventus vb to agree, come together, be suitable W7
  conventiculum n.neut assembly, reunion W7
  conventio n.fem coming together W7
  conventus n.masc assembly W7
  diabetes n.masc diabetes W7
  evenio, evenire, eveni, eventus vb to happen W7
  eventus, eventūs n.masc event, consequence W7
  intervenio, intervenire vb to come/occur between W7
  invenio, invenīre, invēnī, inventus vb to find, invent, come upon W7
  perveniō, pervenīre, pervēnī, perventum vb to reach, arrive LRC
  praeveniens, praevenientis adj/vb.ptc coming before W7
  praevenio, praevenire, praeveni, praeventus vb to come before, anticipate, forestall W7
  provenio, provenire vb to come forward W7
  revenio, revenire vb to come back W7
  stereobata n.fem foundation W7
  subvenio, subvenire, subveni, subventus vb to come up, come to the rescue W7
  supervenio, supervenire, superveni, superventus vb to come W7
  veniō, venīre, vēnī, ventum vb to come, arrive LRC
Vulgar Latin: adventura n.fem adventure W7
Late Latin: bema n.neut step, tribune, tribunal W7
  contravenio, contravenīre vb to come against W7
  subventio, subventionis n.fem assistance W7
Medieval Latin: convenium n.neut agreement W7
  conventus n.masc convent W7
New Latin: Anabaena prop.n (genus name for) anabaena AHD
Old French: advent n advent AHD
  avenir vb to chance, happen W7
  aventure n.fem adventure W7
  base n base AHD
  covenant n.masc contract, agreement W7
  covenir vb to agree W7
  covent n.masc convent W7
  mesavenir vb to chance badly W7
  mesaventure n.fem misadventure W7
Middle French: avenir, avenu vb to come to W7
  base n.fem basis W7
  contrevenir vb to contravene W7
  convenir vb to come together W7
  convention n.fem agreement W7
  covin n.masc coven W7
  event n.masc event W7
  revenir vb to return W7
  souvenir vb to remember W7
  venir vb to come W7
  venue n.fem action of coming W7
French: acrobate n.masc acrobat W7
  avenue n avenue CDC
  diabase n.fem action of walking through W7
  parvenir vb to arrive, achieve W7
  parvenu n.masc parvenu, nouveau-riche W7
  provenance n.fem origin W7
  provenir vb to come forth, originate W7
  revenant n.masc ghost W7
  revenir vb to return W7
  souvenir n.masc memory W7
  stéréobate n.masc stereobate W7
Baltic  
Old Prussian: gemton vb to bear GED
Lithuanian: gemù vb to come; be born LRC
  giminė n.fem family, lineage LRC
  gim̃ti vb to come; be born GED
Latvian: dzìmt, dzimstu, dzimu vb to come; be born LRC
  piedzimt, piedzimstu, piedzimu vb to come; be born LRC
Hellenic  
Hesychius' Greek Lexicon: ἐβάθη vb to be born GED
Greek: adiabatos adj impassable W7
  akrobatein vb to walk on tip-toe AHD
  akrobatēs n.masc acrobat W7
  akrobatos adj walking high W7
  amphisbaina n.fem a serpent with a head at both ends W7
  ἀναβαίνω vb to mount, go up LRC
  Anabasis prop.n.fem book by Xenophon W7
  anabasis vb.ger going up/inland W7
  βαίνω vb to go, walk, set out LRC
  basis n.fem step, base W7
  βάσκω vb to go, step, stride GED
  βατός adj passable, accessible GED
  bēma n.neut step, tribunal W7
  βίβημι vb to go, step, stride GED
  diabainein vb to cross over W7
  diabasis n.fem act of crossing over W7
  diabatos adj passable W7
  diabētēs n.masc diabetes W7
  ἐμβαίνω vb to enter LRC
  καταβαίνω vb to descend LRC
  stylobatēs n.masc pillared walkway W7
Armenian  
Classical Armenian: kam vb to be, exist LRC
Armenian: ekn vb to come LRC
Iranian  
Old Persian: a-gmatā vb.pret he came LRC
  ǰamiya vb.pres goes GED
Avestan: jamaiti vb to go LRC
  jasaiti vb to go GED
Indic  
Sanskrit: gácchati vb to go, step, stride GED
  gámati vb to go, step, stride LRC
  jigāti vb to go, step, stride GED
Tocharian  
Tokharian: käm- vb to come, arrive LRC

 

Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
IV=class 4
adj=adjective
fem=feminine (gender)
ger=gerund(ive)
interj=interjection
intrans=intransitive
masc=masculine (gender)
n=noun
neut=neuter (gender)
pres=present (tense)
pret=preterite (tense)
prop=proper
ptc=participle
str=strong (inflection)
trans=transitive
vb=verb

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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