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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 3. gei̯-, and gei̯ə-   'to live, survive'

Semantic Field: to Live; Living; Life

 

Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Celtic  
Old Irish: bēo/bēu adj quick GED
  bith n world GED
Welsh: byw adj quick GED
Gaulish: bitu- n life; world GED
  Bitu-rīges prop.n World Ruler GED
English  
Old English: cēod(a) n.masc sack, pocket GED
  codd n.masc cod, hull, husk, pillow GED/ASD
  cwic-bēam n.masc type of tree (poplar?) ASD
  cwice n.fem quitch W7/ASD
  cwic(u)/cwuc/cwyc/cuc adj quick GED/ASD
  cwifer adj agile, quick W7
  cwiþ(a) n.masc womb, belly, body GED
  c(w)udu/cwuda/cweodo/cwidu n.neut cud, quid, stomach contents GED/ASD
Middle English: azoc n azoth AHD
  cudde n cud W7
  quicche n quitch W7
  quik adj quick W7
  quiver adj quick, agile W7
  quiveren vb to quiver W7
  reviven vb to revive W7
  surviven vb to survive W7
  viand n viand W7
  vitaille n victual W7
  vital adj vital W7
  wyvere n wyvern, viper W7
  zodiac n zodiac W7
English: aerobe n organism that lives only in presence of oxygen AHD/W7
  amphibian n amphibious organism AHD/W7
  amphibious adj adapted to both land and water TLL
  anabiosis n suspended animation induced by desiccation AHD/W7
  azoth n mercury: first principle of metal (alchemy) AHD/W7
  bio- pfx life, living organism AHD
  biota n flora/fauna of region AHD/W7
  biotic adj re: life AHD/W7
  cenobite n religious group member living in common AHD/W7
  cod n bag, sack OED
  convivial adj re: feasting/drinking/good company AHD/W7
  cud n food re-chewed by ruminant AHD/W7
  dendrobium n (genus of) SE Asian orchid AHD/CDC
  diazo adj re: bonded pair of nitrogen atoms AHD
  hylozoism n doctrine: all matter is animated AHD/W7
  microbe n germ, microorganism AHD/W7
  quick adj alive, living, animate, not dead AHD/W7
  quick n living thing(s) AHD/W7
  Quickbeam prop.n Ent a.k.a. Bregalad in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  quicksilver n/adj mercury W7
  quitch n couch grass AHD/W7
  quiver vb to shake, move with slight tremble AHD/W7
  revive vb to return to life/consciousness, become active/flourishing again AHD/W7
  rhizobium n heterotrophic soil bacterium AHD/W7
  saprobe n organism that obtains nourishment osmotically AHD/W7
  survive vb to live on, remain alive/in existence AHD/W7
  symbiosis n (dissimilar organisms) living together in more/less close association AHD/W7
  viable adj capable of living AHD/W7
  viand n food item AHD/W7
  victual n food usable by man AHD/W7
  vital adj existing as manifestation of life AHD/W7
  vitamin n nutritional substance essential in minute quantity AHD/W7
  viva interj used to express approval/good will AHD/W7
  vivacious adj sprightly, lively in temper/conduct AHD/W7
  vivid adj lively, re: showing vigorous life/freshness AHD/W7
  viviparous adj giving birth to living young AHD/W7
  weever n edible marine percoid fish with venomous spines on dorsal fin AHD/W7
  wyvern n fabulous 2-legged winged creature resembling dragon AHD/W7
  zodiac n imaginary belt in sky with ecliptic as central line AHD/W7
  zodiacal adj re: zodiac LRC
  -zoic adj.sfx re: animal mode of existence AHD/W7
  -zoic adj.sfx re: specified geologic era AHD/W7
  -zoon n.sfx re: animal AHD/W7
  zoon n whole product of fertilized egg AHD/W7
W-Germanic  
Old Frisian: quik adj quick GED
Frisian: quick adj quick ASD
Middle Dutch: quic adj quick GED
Dutch: bioscoop n cinema TLL
  kweek-gras n.neut dog's grass ASD
  kwik adj quick ASD
  kwik n quicksilver LRC
  kwikzilver n quicksilver TLL
Old Saxon: quik/quic adj quick GED/ASD
Middle Low German: queden n peritoneum GED
Old High German: kweksilabar n quicksilver KDW
  quadilla n.fem blister on skin GED
  quecca n quitch W7
  quik/quek/quec/chuech adj quick, lively ASD
  quiti n vulva GED
Middle High German: këc/quëc adj quick ASD
German: keck adj brisk, perky ASD
  Quecke n.fem quitch, grass with creeping roots ASD
  Quecksilber n.neut quicksilver TLL
  quecksilbern adj quicksilver ASD
  Symbiose n symbiosis W7
N-Germanic  
Old Norse: kvika n sensitive flesh W7
  kvikr/kykr adj quick LRC
Old Icelandic: koddi n cod, pillow; scrotum GED
  kuikr adj quick GED
  kviðr n womb, belly, body GED
  kviðugr adj pregnant GED
Icelandic: kwikr/kykr adj quick ASD
Danish: biograf n cinema TLL
  kviksølv n quicksilver TLL
  quik adj quick ASD
  qwik-græs n quitch ASD
Old Swedish: kviþer n womb, belly GED
Swedish: biograf n cinema TLL
  kvicksilver n quicksilver TLL
  kwick adj quick ASD
  qwick-hwete n.neut dog's grass growing among wheat ASD
E-Germanic  
Gothic: *ga-qiujan vb.wk.I to make alive GED
  *qiþus n.masc womb, belly, stomach GED
  qius adj quick LRC
Italic  
Latin: convivium n.neut banquet W7
  revivo, revivere vb to live again W7
  supervivo, supervivere vb to survive W7
  victus, victūs n.masc nourishment W7
  vipera n.fem viper, snake W7
  vita, vitae n.fem life LRC
  vitalis adj of life W7
  vivax, vivacis adj animated, energetic, that lives long W7
  vivendus vb.ger in order to experience W7
  vividus adj vivid W7
  viviparus adj viviparous W7
  vivo, vivere, vixi, victus vb to live W7
  vivus adj quick W7
  zodiacus n.masc zodiac W7
Late Latin: coenobita n.masc monk W7
  coenobium n.neut monastery W7
  convivialis adj of life in common W7
  victualia n.neut.pl victuals, provisions W7
  victualis adj of nourishment W7
Medieval Latin: vivanda n.fem food W7
New Latin: Amphibia prop.n (class name for) amphibians AHD
  anabiosis n.fem anabiosis, to live again W7
  biota n.neut.pl biota W7
  rhizobium n.neut (genus of) bacterium W7
  symbiosis n.fem symbiosis W7
  -zoon sfx animal W7
  zoon n.neut zoon W7
Portuguese: vivo adj vivid, alive TLL
Spanish: vivo adj vivid, alive TLL
Old French: azoc n azoth AHD
Old North French: wivre n.fem wyvern, viper W7
Middle French: revivre vb to live again W7
  survivre vb to outlive W7
  viable adj fit for life W7
  viand n.masc meat, food W7
  vie n.fem life W7
  vitaille n.fem nourishment W7
  vital adj vital W7
  zodiaque n.masc zodiac W7
French: aérobie n.masc aerobe W7
  viable adj fit for life, that will stay alive W7
  vif adj vivid, alive TLL
Italian: viva interj hurrah W7
  vivere vb to live W7
  vivo adj vivid, alive TLL
Baltic  
Old Prussian: gīwa- vb to live GED
Lithuanian: gýti vb to live GED
  gývas adj quick LRC
  gyvénti, gyvẽna, gyvẽno vb to live LRC
Latvian: dzît vb to live LRC
Slavic  
Old Church Slavonic: živъ adj quick LRC
  žiti vb to live GED
  žito n.neut grain, produce LRC
Hellenic  
Homeric Greek: βέομαι vb to live LRC
  ζωή n.fem substance, means of life LRC
  ζώω vb to live LRC
Greek: amphibion n amphibious being W7
  amphibios adj living a double life W7
  anabioun vb to return to life W7
  anabiōsis n.fem return to life W7
  βέομαι vb to live GED
  βίος n.masc life, manner of living LRC
  biotē n.fem life W7
  bioun vb to live W7
  biōtikos adj of life W7
  ζάω vb to live LRC
  zōē n.fem life W7
  zōidiakos adj zodiacal, re: carved figures W7
  zōidion n.neut carved figure, zodiacal sign W7
  zōikos adj of animals W7
  zōion n.neut animal W7
  zōos adj alive, living W7
  ζώω vb to live GED
  symbios adj living together W7
  symbioun vb to live together W7
  symbiōsis n.fem state of living together W7
Late Greek: koinobion n.neut cenobite W7
Armenian  
Armenian: keam vb to live LRC
Iranian  
Old Iranian: *jīvaka- adj lively AHD
Old Persian: jīva adj quick LRC
Middle Persian: *zhīwak- adj quick AHD
Avestan: ǰvaiti vb to live GED
  ǰyā-tu n life GED
Indic  
Sanskrit: jīvá- adj quick LRC
  jī́vati vb to live LRC
Tocharian  
Tocharian B: śau- vb to live GED
Tocharian A: śo- vb to live GED

 

Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
I=class 1
adj=adjective
fem=feminine (gender)
ger=gerund(ive)
interj=interjection
masc=masculine (gender)
n=noun
neut=neuter (gender)
pfx=prefix
pl=plural (number)
prop=proper
sfx=suffix
vb=verb
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
KDW=Gerhard Köbler: Althochdeutsches Wörterbuch, 4th ed. (1993)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
OED=James A.H. Murray et al: The Oxford English Dictionary (1933)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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