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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: gei̯ə-   'to prevail, overpower, be mighty'

Semantic Field: Strong, Mighty, Powerful


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: ācwencan vb.wk to quench IEW/ASD
Middle English: quenchen vb to quench W7
English: Jain prop.n adherent of Jainism LRC
  Jainism prop.n Indic religion espousing soul's liberation via right faith/conduct/knowledge W7
  quench vb to extinguish, put out (fire/light) IEW/W7
Middle Dutch: (f)ir-quisten vb.wk to destroy GED
  quisten vb.wk to rub GED
Middle Low German: quist n.str.fem torment GED
Old High German: quist n.str.fem torment GED
Danish: quista vb to press GED
Gothic: *fra-qistnan vb.wk.IV to perish, be destroyed GED
  qistjan vb.wk.I to destroy, subject to torment GED
Lithuanian: gaĩšti vb to perish, disappear GED
  gèsti vb to expire, go out, be extinguished GED
Latvian: dzièstu vb to expire, go out, be extinguished GED
Old Church Slavonic: žasiti vb to be terrified GED
  u-gasiti vb to put out GED
Greek: βίᾱ n strength GED
  βιά(ζ)ω vb to force, compel GED
  βίαιος adj violent LRC
  σβέννυμι vb to extinguish GED
Sanskrit: jásate vb to be exhausted GED
  jināti vb to grow old; overpower GED
  Jaina n adherent of Jainism W7
Hindi: Jain n adherent of Jainism W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
I=class 1
IV=class 4
fem=feminine (gender)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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