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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. gel-, gelə-, glē-   'to flow, drip down; throw'

Semantic Fields: to Flow; to Throw


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: arblast n arbalest W7
  dēofol/dēoful/dīoful n.masc/neut devil W7/ASD
Middle English: arblast/arblest/arbelaste n arbalest W7/CDC
  balade n ballad W7
  deabolik adj diabolic W7
  devel n devil W7
  embolisme n embolism W7
  parable n parable W7
  parliament n parliament W7
  parlour n parlor W7
  probleme n problem W7
  quailen vb to curdle W7
English: abulia n abnormal inability to act/make decisions AHD/W7
  amphibole n hornblende AHD/W7
  anabolism n cellular molecule-building chemical reactions TLL
  arbalest n crossbow AHD/W7
  astrobleme n meteor/comet impact pit/crater AHD
  ball n large gathering for social dancing AHD/W7
  ballad n dance song AHD/W2I
  balladeer n singer of ballads AHD
  ballet n dance with light flowing figures/movements AHD/W7
  balletomane n ballet devotee AHD/W7
  ballista n ancient military engine for hurling large missiles AHD/W7
  bayadere n fabric with stripes in contrasting colors AHD/W7
  belemnite n conical fossil shell of extinct cephalopod AHD/W7
  bolide n very bright (exploding) meteor AHD
  bolometer n sensitive resistance thermometer AHD/W7
  boule n ancient Greek legislative council AHD/W7
  devil n supreme evil being, e.g. Satan AHD/W7
  devilish adj evil, sinister, re: devil W9
  diabolic adj fiendish, re: devil AHD/W7
  embolism n intercalation AHD/W7
  emboly n gastrula formation by invagination of blastula wall AHD/W7
  epiboly n one part growing around another AHD/W7
  hyperbola n curve formed by intersection of plane with (certain type of) cone AHD/W7
  hyperbole n extravagant exaggeration used as figure of speech AHD/W7
  metabolism n processes of building up/destroying protoplasm incidental to life AHD/W7
  palaver n long parley AHD/W7
  parable n comparison AHD/W7
  parabola n curve formed by intersection of right circular cone with plane parallel to element thereof AHD/W7
  parley vb.intrans to confer, speak with one another AHD/W7
  parliament n formal conference for discussing public affairs AHD/W7
  parlor n room primarily used for conversation/reception of guests AHD/W7
  parol n word of mouth AHD/W7
  parole n promise made with/confirmed by pledge of honor AHD/W7
  problem n question raised for consideration/solution AHD/W7
  quail vb to wither, decline AHD/W7
  symbol n creedal form AHD/W7
Old Frisian: di(o)vel n.masc devil ASD
Frisian: deal/dijvel n.masc devil ASD
Dutch: bal n ball CDC
  duivel n.masc devil ASD
Old Saxon: diabol/diobol/diuƀal/diuvil n.masc devil ASD
Old High German: quellan vb to well, gush W7
  tiufal n.masc devil ASD
Middle High German: tievel/tiuvel n.masc devil ASD
German: Ball n ball CDC
  Quelle n.fem spring, source LRC
  quellen vb to well, gush LRC
  Symbol n.neut symbol LRC
  Teufel n.masc devil ASD
  teuflisch adj devilish, diabolic LRC
Icelandic: djöfull n.masc devil ASD
Danish: bal n ball CDC
  diævel/dievel n.masc devil ASD
Swedish: bal n ball CDC
  djefvul n.masc devil ASD
Gothic: diabaulus n.masc devil ASD
Latin: ballista n.fem ballist, ballista W7
  coagulo, coagulāre vb to curdle W7
  hyperbole n.fem exaggeration W7
  problema n.neut problem W7
  symbolum n.neut sign, symbol, token W7
Late Latin: amphibolus adj ambiguous W7
  arcuballista n.fem arbalest W7
  ballo, ballāre vb to dance W7
  diabolicus adj diabolic W7
  diabolus n.masc slanderer W7
  parabola n.fem speech, parable W7
Medieval Latin: embolismus n.masc embolism W7
  parabolō, parabolāre vb to speak in comparisons W7
New Latin: abulia, abuliae n.fem lack of will W7
  hyperbola n.fem hyperbola W7
  parabola n.fem parable, comparison W7
Portuguese: bailadeira n dancer AHD
  bailar n to dance AHD
  baile n ball CDC
  ballada n ballad CDC
  palavra n.fem word, speech, palaver W7
Spanish: baile n ball CDC
  balada n ballad CDC
Old French: arbaleste/arbelest(r)e n.fem arbalest W7/CDC
  bal n.masc ball W7
  balade n ballad CDC
  baller vb to dance W7
  parlement n.masc language, discourse, action of speaking W7
  parler vb to talk W7
  parlour n.masc parlor; talker W7
Middle French: balade n.fem ballad W7
  diabolique adj of the devil W7
  parable n.fem parable W7
  parler vb to speak W7
  parole n.fem word spoken W7
  problème n.masc problem W7
  quailler vb to curdle W7
French: amphibole n.fem ambiguity W7
  arbalète n arbalest CDC
  bal n.masc ball W7
  ballade n ballad CDC
  ballet n.masc ballet W7
  bayadère n.fem Hindu dancing girl W7
  bélemnite n.fem belemnite, type of mollusc W7
  parabole n parable TLL
  parler vb to speak TLL
  parole n.fem speech, uttered word W7
Old Provençal: balada n.fem dance, song sung while dancing W7
  balar vb to dance W7
Old Occitan: arbalesta/albalesta n arbalest CDC
  bal n ball CDC
  ballada n ballad CDC
Italian: ballare vb to dance W7
  ballata n ballad CDC
  balletto n.masc ballet W7
  ballo n.masc ball, dance W7
  parlare vb to speak TLL
Albanian: simbol n symbol LRC
Greek: aboulia n indecision AHD
  amphiballein vb to throw round, doubt W7
  amphibolos adj ambiguous W7
  ballizein vb to dance, jump about W7
  ballistēs n.masc ballista W7
  βάλλω vb to throw LRC
  belemnon n.neut dart W7
  blēma n missile AHD
  bolē n.fem stroke, beam of light W7
  βουλή n.fem will LRC
  βούλομαι vb to wish, request LRC
  diaballein vb to throw across, slander W7
  diabolos n.masc slanderer W7
  emballein vb to insert W7
  embolē n.fem insertion W7
  ἐπιβάλλω vb to throw on LRC
  epibolē n.fem addition W7
  metaballein vb to change W7
  metabolē n.fem change W7
  paraballein vb to compare W7
  parabolē n.fem comparison W7
  περιβάλλω vb to throw around LRC
  proballein vb to throw forward W7
  problēma n.neut problem, lit. something thrown forward W7
  symballein vb to throw together, compare W7
  symbolon n.neut token, sign, symbol used to prove identity W7
  hyperballein vb to exceed W7
  hyperbolē n.fem excess, hyperbole, hyperbola W7
Sanskrit: balbalīti vb to whirl W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W2I=Webster's New International Dictionary of the English Language, 2nd ed. (1959)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)
W9=Webster's Ninth New Collegiate Dictionary (1983)

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