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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. ger-, gerə-   'to swallow; craw, gorge, throat'

Semantic Field: Throat

 

Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
English  
Old English: crawa n craw W7
Middle English: crawe n craw W7
  devouren vb to devour W7
  garget n throat W7
  gorge n gorge W7
  gorget n gorget AHD
English: ambrosia n food/unguent of gods (Greek/Roman mythology) AHD/W7
  ambrosial adj immortal, re: ambrosia W7
  bronchial adj re: bronchi W7
  bronchiectasis n chronic dilation of bronchial tubes AHD
  bronch(o)- pfx bronchus, bronchial AHD
  bronchus, bronchi n primary division of trachea leading to lungs AHD/W7
  carnivore n flesh-eating animal W7
  craw n crop of bird/insect AHD/W7
  devour vb.trans to eat greedily/ravenously AHD/W7
  garget n mastitis of domestic animals AHD/W7
  gorge n throat AHD/W7
  gorget n armor/collar covering throat/shoulders AHD
  gurgitation n swallowing AHD
  hellebore n herb of crowfoot family AHD/W7
  herbivore n plant-eating animal W7
  hryvnia n Ukraine currency unit AHD
  ingurgitate vb.trans to guzzle, swallow greedily/in large quantity AHD/W7
  insectivore n insect-eating plant/animal LRC
  locavore n one who prefers locally grown food LRC
  omnivore n flesh- and plant-eating animal LRC
  regurgitate vb to be thrown/poured back AHD/W7
  scrag n scrawny/rawboned person/animal AHD/W7
  theobromine n bitter, weakly basic compound related to caffeine AHD/W7
  voracious adj ravenous, having huge appetie AHD/W7
W-Germanic  
Middle Dutch: craaghe n neck, gorge AHD
Old High German: querdar n bait W7
German: Köder n.masc bait LRC
  Kragen n.masc neck, collar TLL
N-Germanic  
Swedish: krage n collar SAO
Italic  
Latin: ambrosia n.fem ambrosia AHD/CLD
  ambrosius, ambrosia, ambrosium adj divine, ambrosial CLD
  devoro, devorare vb to devour W7
  gurges, gurgitis n.masc throat, whirlpool W7
  helleborus n.masc hellebore W7
  ingurgito, ingurgitare, ingurgitavi, ingurgitatus vb to pour in, swallow like a glutton W7
  vorax, voracis adj voracious, devouring W7
  voro, vorāre vb to devour W7
Late Latin: gurga n.fem throat, whirlpool W7
  gurgito, gurgitāre vb to engulf W7
Medieval Latin: regurgito, regurgitare, regurgitavi, regurgitatus vb to regurgitate W7
New Latin: bronchus n.masc bronchus W7
  Theobroma n.fem genus of trees W7
Old French: gorge n gorge AHD
  gorgete n.dim gorget, little gorge AHD
Middle French: devourer vb to devour W7
  gargate n.masc throat W7
  gargouiller vb to gargle W7
  gorge n.fem throat W7
Baltic  
Lithuanian: gėris n.masc goodness LRC
Slavic  
Russian: griva n mane AHD
Ukrainian: hryvnia n hryvnia AHD
Hellenic  
Homeric Greek: ἀμβροσίη adj/n ambrosia LRC
  ἀμβρόσιος adj/n divine, ambrosial LRC
Greek: ʼάμβροτος adj divine, ambrosial, immortalizing AHD
  bibrōskein vb to devour W7
  bronchos n.masc trachea W7
  brōma n.neut food W7
  helleboros n.masc plant thought to remedy madness W7

 

Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
adj=adjective
dim=diminutive
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
n=noun
neut=neuter (gender)
pfx=prefix
trans=transitive
vb=verb

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
CLD=Cassell's Latin Dictionary (1959, rev. 1968)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
SAO=Swedish Academy: Svenska Akademiens Ordbok (2011)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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