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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: gou-   'cow, ox, gaur'

Semantic Fields: Cow; Ox, Steer


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish:  n cow RPN
Old English: butere n.fem butter, cheese ASD
  cū/cȳ(e) n.fem cow RPN/AHD/ASD
Middle English: beef n beef W7
  bugle n bugle W7
  butter n butter W7
  cou, kyn n cow(s) W7/AHD
English: beef n flesh of adult domestic bovine AHD/W7
  Bootes prop.n northern circumpolar constellation LRC
  bovine adj/n (re:) ox/cow AHD/W7
  buccinator n muscle forming cheek wall AHD
  buffalo n oxlike Old World mammal AHD
  bugle n brass instrument with cupped mouthpiece (like trumpet) AHD/W7
  bulimia n insatiable appetite AHD
  bumelia n tree/shrub with very hard wood AHD
  buprestid n destructive wood-boring beetle AHD
  butter n solid food emulsion made by churning milk/cream AHD/W7
  Butterbur(r) prop.n Bree surname in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  butyric adj re: a certain isomeric fatty acid AHD/W7
  cow n mature female of cattle AHD/W7
  gaur n (East Indian) wild ox AHD/W7
  gayal n domesticated bovine mammal AHD
  gunny n coarse jute sacking AHD/W7
  kine cows, cattle AHD
  nilgai n large long-legged Indian antelope AHD
  proboscis n trunk (e.g. of elephant) AHD/W7
Old Frisian: botera/butera n butter ASD
   n.fem cow RPN/ASD
Frisian: buter n butter ASD
  kw, ky n.fem cow(s) ASD
Dutch: bōter n.fem butter ASD
  koe n.fem cow ASD
Old Saxon:  n.fem cow RPN/ASD
Old High German: butera/butere n.fem butter W7/ASD
  kuo/chuo/kua/kō n.fem cow W7/ASD
Middle High German: buter n butter ASD
  kuo n.fem cow ASD
German: Butter n.fem butter ASD
  Kuh n.fem cow ASD
Old Norse: kýr n.fem cow LRC
Icelandic: kȳr n.fem cow ASD
Danish: ko(e) n cow ASD
Swedish: ko n.fem cow ASD
Latin: bōs, bovis n.masc/fem bull, bovine RPN
  bucca n.fem cheek ELD
  būcina n.fem horn, trumpet AHD
  būcinātor n.masc trumpeter ELD
  būcula n.fem.dim heifer, young cow ELD
  buculus n.masc little ox W7
  butyrum n.neut butter W7
  proboscis n.fem a growth W7
Late Latin: bōs, bovis n.masc/fem bull, bovine W7
  bovinus adj bovine W7
Portuguese: boi n bovine: ox TLL
Spanish: buey n.masc bovine: ox TLL
Old French: buef n.masc beef; bovine: ox W7
  bugle n.masc ox, bugle W7
French: beurre n.masc butter ASD
  bœuf n.masc beef; bovine: ox TLL
  butyrique adj re: butter W7
Italian: bove n bovine: ox TLL
  bue n.masc bovine: ox LRC
  bu(ti)rro n.masc butter ASD
Lithuanian: gauja n.fem herd, band W7
Latvian: gotiņa n.fem little cow LRC
  gùovs n cow RPN
Greek: βόσκω vb to feed, tend (cattle) LS
  βου̃ς n.masc/fem ox, bull, cow LRC
  βούτης n.masc herdsman, plowman LS
  βού-τῡρον n.neut butter LS
  πουλυβότειρα adj fruitful, all-nourishing LRC
  προβοσκίς n.fem means of providing food LS
Armenian: kov n cow RPN
Avestan: gāuš n ox, bull, cow RPN
Sanskrit: gáuḥ/gouḥ n ox, bull, cow RPN
  gaura n gaur, bull W7
Bengali: gayāl n gayal AHD
Hindi: ganī n coarse jute sacking W7
  gaur n gaur W7
Tocharian B: keu n cow RPN
Tocharian A: ko n cow RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
ELD=Charlton T. Lewis: An Elementary Latin Dictionary (1999)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
LS=Liddell and Scott: Greek-English Lexicon, 7th-9th ed's (1882-1940), rev.
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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