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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. ghen(-ə)-   'to hit, strike, fend'

Semantic Field: to Hit, Strike, Beat


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: gonim vb to wound, slay RPN
  guin n wound RPN
Old English: gūþ n.fem war, fight, battle RPN
  gūþ-wine n.masc [kenning for] sword, lit. war-friend ASD
Middle English: defenden vb to defend W7
  defens(e) n defense W7
  fenden vb to defend W7
  fens n fence, defense W7
  gonne/gunne n gun W7
  offenden vb to offend W7
  offense n offense W7
English: bonze n Buddhist monk/priest AHD/W7
  defend vb to prevent AHD/W7
  defense n act of defending/preventing AHD/W7
  fence n defense, means of protection AHD/W7
  fend vb to defend AHD/W7
  Gandalf prop.n grey/white wizard in Tolkien: The Hobbit, The Lord of the Rings LRC
  gonfalon n ensign of certain princes/states (medieval Italy) AHD/W7
  gun n piece of ordnance with high muzzle velocity/flat trajectory AHD/W7
  Guthláf prop.n Theoden's flag-bearer in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  Gúthwinë prop.n Eomer's sword in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  offend vb to sin, transgress moral/divine law AHD/W7
  offense n act of stumbling AHD/W7
Old Saxon: gūðea n battle LRC
Old High German: gund- n war, fight, battle RPN
Old Norse: Gandálfr prop.n.masc Gandalf (Voluspa dwarf) TPE
  gandálfr n.masc wizard, lit. staff-elf LRC
  gandr n.masc magic staff/spirit LRC
  guðr n.fem war, fight, battle LRC
Old Icelandic: gunnr n war, fight, battle RPN
Icelandic: gunnr/gūðr n war ASD
Latin: dēfendō, dēfendere, defendī, defensus vb to defend, repel, ward off RPN
  -fendere sfx to strike W7
  offendō, offendere vb to hit, strike, knock, dash against RPN
  offēnsō, offēnsāre vb.freq to strike, dash against RPN
  offensus vb.ptc offended W7
Vulgar Latin: defensa n.fem defense W7
Portuguese: bonzo n bonze W7
Old French: defendre vb to defend W7
  defense n.fem defense W7
Middle French: offendre vb to offend W7
  offense n.fem offense W7
French: bonze n bonze W7
Italian: gonfalone n.masc gonfalon, standard, banner W7/CID
Lithuanian: geniù, genė́ti vb to lop, prune, trim RPN
  genù, giñti vb to drive RPN
  gìnti, gìna, gýnė vb to defend; drive (cattle) LRC
Latvian: dzìt vb to drive (cattle) LRC
Czech: úhona n damage, injury LRC
Serbo-Croatian: prijègon n battle LRC
Old Church Slavonic: ženǫ vb to drive LRC
Russian: gon n hunt, driving LRC
Albanian: gjanj vb to hunt LRC
Homeric Greek: φόνος n bloodshed, murder, slaughter RPN
Hittite: ku-en-zi vb to strike, kill, slay RPN
Armenian: ganem vb to strike, beat RPN
Avestan: ǰainti vb to strike, beat, kill RPN
Sanskrit: hánti vb to smite, hurt, kill RPN
Tocharian A: kũnac n battle LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
freq=frequentative (aspect)
masc=masculine (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CID=Cassell's Italian Dictionary (1958)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TPE=Lee M. Hollander: The Poetic Edda (1962)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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