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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: gher-   'warm, hot'

Semantic Field: Hot, Warm


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: fogeir vb to heat, warm up LRC
Middle Irish: gert n milk W7
Breton: gred n warmth LRC
Old English: gearu adj prepared LRC
  gor n.neut gore, dirt, filth, dung, excrement IEW/ASD
  wearm adj warm LRC
Middle English: furnas n furnace W7
  gore n gore, filth W7
  warm adj warm LRC
English: forceps n instrument for grasping/holding/exerting traction AHD/W7
  forcipate adj forked, shaped like forceps/pincers AHD
  furnace n enclosed structure for producing heat AHD/W7
  German prop.n language/inhabitant of Germany W7
  Germanic prop.adj re: German/Germany W7
  Germany prop.n central European country W7
  ghee n semifluid clarified butter AHD/W7
  Gorbag prop.n orc in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  gore n (clotted) blood W7
  gorgûn term for orcs in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  hornito n low volcanic mound AHD
  -therm n.sfx animal having (specified) body temperature AHD/W7
  therm n unit of heat quantity AHD/W7
  -thermy n.sfx state of heat AHD/W7
  warm adj moderately heated LRC
Old High German: garo adj ready LRC
  gor n gore, dirt, filth, dung, excrement ASD
  warm adj warm LRC
German: gar adj done, cooked LRC
  germanisch adj Germanic LRC
  warm adj warm LRC
Old Norse: varmr adj warm LRC
Old Icelandic: gera adj ready, prepared LRC
Icelandic: gor n gore, dirt, filth, dung, excrement ASD
Swedish: varm adj warm TLL
Gothic: warmjan vb to warm LRC
Latin: forceps n.masc tongs, pliers, pincers, forceps W7
  formus adj hot, warm W7
  fornax, fornacis n.fem furnace, fireplace, oven W7
  Germanus, Germana, Germanum adj re: Germans LRC
New Latin: -thermia sfx -thermy, heat W7
Spanish: hornito n.dim little oven AHD
  horno n oven AHD
Old French: fornaise n.fem furnace, fireplace W7
Old Prussian: goro n hearth LRC
Lithuanian: gãras n.masc steam LRC
  vìrti vb to cook, boil LRC
Latvian: garš n.masc steam; spirit LRC
  virt vb to cook, boil LRC
Polish: garniec n pot LRC
Czech: horký adj warm LRC
Serbo-Croatian: bitter n hearth LRC
Old Church Slavonic: goritъ vb to burn LRC
Russian: gorn n hearth LRC
Gheg: zjarm adj warm IEW
Tosk: zjarr n fire, heat IEW
  zjarrtë adj fiery, passionate LRC
Homeric Greek: θερμός adj hot, warm LRC
  θέρος n summer, warm season LRC
  θέρω vb to warm, be warm LRC
Greek: thermē n.fem heat W7
Hittite: war-(nu-) vb to burn, set afire LRC
Armenian: jerm vb to heat LRC
  ǰer n warmth LRC
  varim vb to burn LRC
Avestan: garəmo adj warm LRC
Sanskrit: gharmá- n hot coals LRC
  ghṛta n milk, clarified butter W7
  háras adj glowing LRC
Hindi: ghī n clarified butter W7
Tocharian A: śärme adj warm LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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