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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: i̯ē- : i̯ə-   'to do, throw, project'

Semantic Fields: to Do, Make; to Throw


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Middle English: abject adj abject W7
  adjacent adj adjacent W7
  adjective adj adjective W7
  amis n amice W7
  conjecture n conjecture W7
  dejecten vb to deject, throw down W7
  ejecten vb to eject W7
  ges n jess W7
  giste n joist W7
  jette n jetty W7
  jetteson n jettison W7
  object n object W7
  objecten vb to object W7
  pargetten vb to parget W7
  proiecte n project W7
  rejecten vb to reject W7
  subject n subject W7
English: abject adj sunk to low condition AHD/W7
  adjacent adj nearby, not distant AHD/W7
  adjective adj re: adjective AHD/W7
  adjective n noun modifier W7
  amice n liturgical vestment worn about neck/shoulders under alb AHD/W7
  catheter n tubular medical device inserted into canals/vessels/passageways/body cavities AHD/W7
  circumjacent adj surrounding, lying around, bordering on all sides AHD
  conjecture n interpretation of omens AHD/W7
  deject vb.trans to make gloomy AHD/W7
  diesis n double dagger AHD/W7
  ejaculate vb to eject from living body AHD/W7
  eject vb.trans to drive out by physical force AHD/W7
  enema n injection of liquid into intestine by way of anus AHD/W7
  gist n basis for legal action AHD/W7
  gite n simple rural vacation retreat AHD
  inject vb.trans to throw/drive/force into AHD/W7
  interject vb.trans to interpolate, throw in between/among other things AHD/W7
  jactitation n boastful public assertion AHD/W7
  jess n short strap secured on hawk's leg AHD/W7
  jettison n voluntary cargo sacrifice to lighten ship's load when in distress AHD/W7
  jetty n structure extended into sea/lake/river to influence tide/current and/or protect harbor AHD/W7
  joist n small timber/beam running wall-to-wall to support floor/ceiling AHD/W7
  object n something seen/touched/otherwise sensed AHD/W7
  object vb to cite as objection, offer in opposition AHD/W7
  paresis n slight/partial paralysis AHD/W7
  parget vb.trans to coat with plaster AHD/W7
  project n scheme, specific plan/design AHD/W7
  project vb.trans to throw/cast forward AHD/W7
  reject vb.trans to refuse to submit/acquiesce/acknowledge AHD/W7
  subjacent adj lying below/under AHD/W7
  subject n one (placed) under control/authority AHD/W7
  superjacent adj overlying, lying above/upon AHD/W7
  synesis n [grammatical construction re:] agreement/reference according to sense not syntax AHD/W7
  traject vb.trans to transmit AHD/W7
German: Projekt n.neut project LRC
  Subjekt n.neut subject LRC
Latin: abicio, abicere, abieci, abiectus vb to cast off W7
  adjacens, adjacentis vb.pres.ptc neighbouring W7
  adjaceo, adjacēre, adjacuī vb to lie near W7
  adjicio, adjicere, adjēcī, adjectus vb to throw to, add W7
  amicio, amicīre, amicuī, amictus vb to wrap around W7
  amictus, amictūs n.masc cloak, outer garment W7
  amictus adj/vb.ptc clad, thrown around W7
  conicio, conicere, conieci, coniectus vb to throw together; conjecture W7
  conjectura n.fem conjecture, supposition W7
  deicio, deicere, deieci, deiectus vb to throw, throw out, reject W7
  diesis n.masc diesis W7
  eicio, eicere, eieci, eiectus vb to eject W7
  ejaculor, ejaculāri, ejaculātus vb to throw out W7
  inicio, inicere, inieci, iniectus vb to throw in W7
  interico, intericere, interieci, interiectus vb to throw between W7
  jaceō, jacēre, jacuī vb to lie, recline W7
  jaciō, jacere, jēcī, iactus vb to throw, cast, hurl W7
  jactatio, jactationis n.fem action of throwing W7
  jactō, jactāre, jactāvī, jactātus vb.freq to throw, cast, hurl W7
  jaculor, jaculārī vb.dep to throw W7
  jaculum n.neut dart W7
  obicio, obicere, obieci, obiectus vb to throw in the way, hinder W7
  proicio, proicere, proieci, proiectus vb to throw forward W7
  reicio, reicere, reieci, reiectus vb to throw back W7
  subicio, subicere vb to subject, throw under W7
  subjaceō, subjacēre vb to lie under W7
  subjectum n.neut subject of a proposition W7
  subjectus vb.ptc one under authority, thrown under W7
  superjaceō, superjacēre vb to lie over/upon W7
  trajectus vb.ptc crossed W7
Vulgar Latin: jacitum vb.ptc laid down W7
Late Latin: adjectivus n.masc adjective W7
  catheter n.masc catheter W7
  enema n.neut the injection of liquid in the intestine by way of the anus W7
  jactitatio, jactitationis n.fem act of bringing forward in public W7
  jactitō, jactitāre, jactitāvī, jactitātus vb.freq to bring forward in public W7
  jactō, jactāre vb to throw around W7
Medieval Latin: amictus n.masc a throwing around W7
New Latin: paresis n.fem slight/partial paralysis W7
  synesis n.fem synesis W7
Old French: adjectif n adjective AHD
  amit, amis n cloak, amice AHD
  gesir vb to lie, recline AHD
  getaison n.fem action of throwing W7
  giste n.fem gite, lair, lodging AHD
Anglo-French: getteson n.fem action of throwing W7
  gist n.fem basis for legal action W7
Middle French: adjectif adj adjective W7
  amit n.masc cloak, amice W7
  conjecture n.fem conjecture W7
  gesir vb to lie W7
  gies n.masc a throw W7
  gist n.masc gist W7
  giste vb.ptc.fem lying W7
  jet n.masc throw W7
  jeté, jetee vb.ptc thrown W7
  jeter vb to throw W7
  parjeter vb to throw on top of W7
  pourjet n.masc plan W7
  pourjeter vb to throw forward W7
  subject n.masc one under authority W7
French: gîte n gite, lair, lodging AHD
  jeter vb to throw W7
Greek: diesis n.fem diesis W7
  diienai vb to send through W7
  enienai vb to inject W7
  hienai vb to send W7
  kathetēr n.masc catheter W7
  kathienai vb to send down W7
  πάρεσις n.fem remission, a letting go LS
  parienai vb to let fall W7
  synesis n.fem understanding, sense W7
  συνίημι vb to understand, bring together LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
freq=frequentative (aspect)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pres=present (tense)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
LS=Liddell and Scott: Greek-English Lexicon, 7th-9th ed's (1882-1940), rev.
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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