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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. k̑ad-   'to fall'

Semantic Field: to Fall


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Middle English: accident n accident W7
  cadence n cadence W7
  cas n case W7
  casual adj casual W7
  chance n chance W7
  decayen vb to decay W7
  eschete n escheat W7
  incident n incident W7
  occasion n occasion W7
English: accident n event occurring by chance/from unknown causes AHD/W7
  accidental adj nonessential, re: accident W7
  cadaver n corpse (intended for dissection) AHD/W7
  cadence n rhythmic sequence/flow of language sounds AHD/W7
  cadent adj falling AHD/W7
  caducous adj falling off easily/before normal time AHD/W7
  cascade n steep, multiple fall of water AHD/W7
  case n set of circumstances/conditions AHD/W7
  casual adj subject to/resulting from/occurring by chance AHD/W7
  casualty n disaster, serious/fatal accident AHD/W7
  casuist n one skilled in/given to studying conscience in conduct AHD/W7
  chance n something happening unpredictably, without apparent cause AHD/W7
  chute n waterfall AHD/W7
  decay vb to decline from sound/prosperous condition AHD/W7
  deciduous adj falling off (e.g. of leaves in autumn) AHD/W7
  escheat n reversion of property to crown/state AHD/W7
  incident n event, happening, occurrence AHD/W7
  occasion n (favorable) circumstance/opportunity AHD/W7
  occident n the west, western lands/regions AHD
  occidental adj western, re: occident W7
  recidivate vb to relapse, backslide, return to crime AHD
  recidivism n tendency to recidivate AHD
Latin: accidens, accidentis adj/vb.ptc accidental W7
  accido, accidere vb to happen W7
  cadaver n.neut corpse W7
  cado, cadere, cecidi, casus vb to fall W7
  caducus adj transitory, perishable W7
  casus, casūs n.masc fall, chance W7
  decido, decidere vb to cut off, decide W7
  incido, incidere vb to fall into, happen W7
  occasio, occasionis n.fem chance, occasion W7
  occido, occidere, occidi, occasus vb to fall, chance W7
Vulgar Latin: cadentia n.fem fall W7
  casico, casicare vb to fall W7
  excadeo, excadere vb to fall out W7
Late Latin: casualis adj casual W7
Portuguese: cair vb to fall TLL
Spanish: caer vb to fall TLL
  casuista n.masc/fem casuist W7
Old French: accident n accident, chance event AHD
  cas n.masc fall, situation W7
  chance n.fem luck W7
  cheoir vb to fall W7
  chute n.fem chute W7
  escheoir vb to fall, devolve W7
  eschete n.fem reversion of property W7
Old North French: decaïr vb to decay W7
Middle French: accident n.masc accident, casualty W7
  casuel adj casual W7
  incident n.masc incident W7
  occasion n.fem chance, occasion W7
French: cascade n.fem cascade, waterfall W7
  choir vb.arch to fall TLL
  chute n.fem chute W7
Old Italian: cadenza n.fem cadence, rythm W7
  cadere vb to fall W7
Italian: cadere vb to fall TLL
  cascare vb to fall W7
  cascata n.fem cascade W7
Greek: ptōsis n.fem act of falling W7
Sanskrit: śad vb to fall W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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