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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: kai-lo-, kai-lu-   'bright; hale, whole, healthy'

Semantic Fields: Bright; Well; Health


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: hǣlan vb.wk to heal W7/ASD
  hāl adj hale, whole, healthy ASD
  hālettan, hālette, hāleted vb.wk.I to hail, salute LRC
  hālga n hallow OED
  hālgan hallows OED
  hālgian vb.wk to hallow W7/ASD
  hālian vb.wk to heal, get well, become hale ASD
  hālig adj holy, hallowed LRC
  hāligdæg n holiday W7
  hāligdōm n halidom W7
  hālig-mōnaþ n.masc September, lit. holy-month (of sacrifice) ASD
Middle English: Alhalwemesse prop.n Allhallowmas AHD
  hail interj hail (greeting/salutation) W7
  halidom n halidom W7
  halowen vb to hallow W7
  haly/holi/holy adj holy W7
  helen vb to heal W7
  holiday n holiday W7
  holihoc n hollyhock W7
  hool adj whole, healthy W7
English: Allhallowmas prop.n.arch All Saints' Day AHD
  hail interj [used to express] acclamation AHD/W7
  hale adj sound, free from defect/disease/infirmity AHD/W7
  Haleth prop.n Helm's oldest son in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  halidom n something held sacred AHD/W7
  Halifirien prop.n beacon hill in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  Halimath prop.n Shire calendar's September in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  hallow n saint, holy person OED
  hallow vb.trans to make holy/set apart for holy use AHD/W7
  Halloween prop.n evening before All Saints' Day AHD
  Hallows prop.n tombs in Tolkien: Lord of the Rings LRC
  hallows tombs, shrines, relics, holy places OED
  heal vb to make/become sound/whole AHD/W7
  health n general bodily condition AHD/W7
  holiday n lit. holy day AHD/W7
  hollyhock n widely cultivated Chinese perennial herb AHD/W7
  holy adj sacred, set apart to service of deity AHD/W7
  wassail n (early English toast to) good health AHD/W7
  whole adj unhurt, free of wound/injury AHD/W7
  wholesome adj promoting health/well-being AHD/W7
Old Frisian: hēl adj hale, whole, healthy ASD
  hēla vb to heal ASD
  hēlich adj holy ASD
Old Saxon: hēl adj hale, whole, healthy ASD
  hēlag adj holy ASD
  hēlagōn vb to hallow ASD
  hēlean vb to heal ASD
  Heliand prop.n.masc Savior (Jesus) in epic poem Heliand LRC
Old High German: heil adj healthy, unhurt W7
  heilag adj holy ASD
  heilagōn vb to hallow ASD
  heilen/heilan vb to heal W7/ASD
  heiligtuom n halidom ASD
German: heil adj hale, whole, healthy ASD
  Heiland n.masc savior, redeemer LRC
  heilen vb to heal ASD
  heilig adj holy ASD
  heiligen vb to hallow ASD
  Heiligthum n halidom, sanctuary ASD
Old Norse: heill adj sound, safe, healthy LRC
  heill n.fem/neut good luck, good omen LRC
Icelandic: heilagr adj holy ASD
  heill adj hale, whole, healthy ASD
  helga vb to hallow ASD
  helgidōmr n sanctuary ASD
Swedish: hel adj whole TLL
Gothic: hailjan vb to heal ASD
  hails adj hale, whole, healthy ASD
Crimean Gothic: iel n.neut life, health CGo
  iel(tsch) adj well, alive, healthy CGo


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
I=class 1
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CGo=MacDonald Stearns, Jr: Crimean Gothic (1978)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
OED=James A.H. Murray et al: The Oxford English Dictionary (1933)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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