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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: kand-, skand-, and Indo-Iranian (s)kend-   'to glow, shine; bright, candent'

Semantic Fields: to Shine, Glisten; Bright


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: candel(l)/condel(l) n.fem candle W7/ASD
Middle English: candel n candle W7
  encens n incense W7
  encensen vb to incense W7
English: candelabrum n branched lamp/candlestick with several lights AHD/W7
  candelilla n wax-coated shrub of Texas/Mexico AHD
  candent adj glowing, heated to whiteness AHD/W7
  candescence n candescent state, glowing whiteness AHD/W7
  candescent adj glowing/dazzling (esp. from heat) AHD/W7
  candid adj white AHD/W7
  candida n yeast-like fungus AHD
  candidate n one who offers for office/honor/membership AHD/W7
  candle n cylindrical wax/tallow mass with cotton/linen wick burned to give light AHD/W7
  candor n brilliance, whiteness AHD/W7
  frankincense n fragrant gum resin AHD/W7
  incandesce vb to be(come) incandescent AHD/W7
  incandescent adj bright, candent, luminous W7
  incendiary n one who sets fire to building/other property AHD/W7
  incense n material used to produce fragrant odor when burned AHD/W7
  incense vb.trans to inflame with passion/emotion AHD/W7
Latin: candela n.fem candle W7
  candelabrum n.neut candlestick W7
  candeo, cand─ôre vb to shine, glow, be white W7
  candidatus vb.ptc clothed in white W7
  candidus, candida, candidum adj clear, bright, white LRC
  incandesco, incandescere vb to glow, become hot W7
  incendiarius n.masc one who sets something on fire W7
  incendium n.neut conflagration W7
  incendo, incendere, incendi, incensus vb to set on fire W7
Spanish: candela n candle ASD
Old French: encens n.masc incense W7
Middle French: incenser vb to burn incense W7
French: candeur n.fem purity, naiveness W7
  candide adj pure, naive W7
  chandelle n.fem candle ASD
Italian: candela n candle ASD
Late Greek: kanderos adj ember W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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