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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: kap-ut   'head'

Semantic Field: Head


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: behēafdian vb to behead AHD
  h(e)afela/heafola/hafala n.masc head RPN/ASD
  hēafod n head RPN
Middle English: acheven vb to achieve W7
  biheden vb to behead AHD
  cap n cape W7
  capital adj/n capital W7
  capitane n captain W7
  catel n cattle W7
  chapitre n chapter; meeting of canons W7
  chief n chief W7
  chieftaine n chieftain W7
  courchef n kerchief W7
  hed n head W7
  meschief n mischief W7
English: achieve vb to accomplish, bring to successful conclusion AHD/W7
  behead vb to decapitate, sever head from body AHD/W7
  biceps n muscle having two heads AHD/W7
  caddie n one who waits for odd jobs AHD/W7
  cadet n younger son/brother AHD/W7
  cape n point/peninsula of land jutting into water AHD/W7
  capital adj punishable by death AHD/W7
  capital n stock of accumulated goods AHD/W7
  capitate adj forming a head AHD/W7
  capitation n poll tax, direct personal uniform tax AHD/W7
  capitellum n lower end of humerus AHD
  capitulate vb.intrans to parley, negotiate AHD/W7
  capitulum n rounded protuberance of anatomical part AHD/W7
  capo n movable bar attached to fingerboard of fretted instrument AHD/W9
  capo n head of branch of crime syndicate AHD/W9
  caprice n sudden unpredictable turn/change AHD/W7
  captain n commander of military establishment/body of troops AHD/W7
  cattle n domesticated bovine quadrupeds AHD/W7
  caudillo n Spanish/Latin-American strong man AHD/W7
  chapiter n top/capital of column AHD/W7
  chapter n main division of book AHD/W7
  chef n skilled male cook managing kitchen AHD/W7
  chief n upper part of heraldic field AHD/W7
  chieftain n leader of band/clan/tribe AHD/W7
  corporal n enlisted military man of lowest noncommissioned rank AHD/W7
  decapitate vb.trans to behead, cut off head AHD/W7
  forehead n facial part above eyes AHD/W7
  godhead n divinity, divine nature/essence AHD/W7
  head n upper/anterior division of body containing brain and chief sense organs AHD/W7
  hetman n man in charge, lit. head-man AHD
  kerchief n cloth square used as head covering/neck scarf AHD/W7
  meathead n dull/stupid person AHD
  mischief n damage/injury caused by human agency AHD/W7
  occiput n back part of head/skull AHD/W7
  precipitate n solid substance separated from chemical solution/suspension AHD/W7
  precipitate vb to hurl, throw violently AHD/W7
  recapitulate vb to summarize, repeat briefly AHD/W7
  sinciput n forehead AHD/W7
  Strawheads Rohirrim a.k.a. Forgoil in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  triceps n muscle arising from three heads AHD/W7
Old Frisian: hāved/hād n head RPN
Dutch: hoofd n head TLL
  kapitein n captain TLL
Old Saxon: hōƀid n head RPN
Old High German: houbit/haupit n head RPN/ASD
Middle High German: houbetman n.masc hetman AHD
German: Hauptmann n.masc hetman, captain AHD
  Hetmann n.dial hetman AHD
  Kapitän n.masc captain LRC
Old Norse: hǫfuð n.neut head LRC
Danish: hoved n head TLL
  kaptajn n captain TLL
Swedish: huvud n head TLL
  kapten n captain TLL
Gothic: haubiþ n head RPN
Latin: biceps adj two-headed W7
  capillus n single hair on head TLL
  capis, capitis n one-handled sacrificial vessel RPN
  capitalis, capitale adj re: head W7
  capitatus adj headed W7
  capitulum n.neut chapter, heading W7
  caput n.neut head RPN
  occiput, occipitis n.neut the back of the head W7
  praeceps, praecipitis n.neut precipice W7
  praecipitatum n.neut precipitate W7
  praecipitō, praecipitāre, praecipitāvī, praecipitātus vb to precipite W7
  sinciput, sincipitis n.neut half a head, the brain W7
  triceps, tricipitis adj three-headed W7
Late Latin: capitaneus n.masc chief W7
  capitatio, capitationis n.fem poll tax W7
  capitellum n.neut chapter; heading of colum W7
  decapitō, decapitāre, decapitāvī, decapitātus vb to decapitate W7
  recapitulo, recapitulare, recapitulavi, recapitulatus vb to restate by heads, sum up W7
Medieval Latin: capitale adj.neut of one's property, cattle W7
  capitulo, capitulare, capitulavi, capitulatus vb to distinguish by heads/chapters W7
  capitulum n.neut chapter, division of a book W7
New Latin: triceps, tricipitis n.masc triceps muscle W7
Portuguese: cabeça n head TLL
  cabelo n hair TLL
Spanish: cabello n hair TLL
  cabo n head TLL
  capítulo n chapter TLL
  caudillo n.masc guide/trainer in military exercises W7
Old French: chapitle, chapitre n.masc chapter W7
  chief n.masc head, chief W7
  covrir vb to cover W7
  cuevrechief n.masc hat, head-covering W7
  meschief n.masc calamity W7
Old North French: catel n.masc personal property W7
Middle French: achever vb to finish W7
  cap n.masc cape W7
  capitain n.masc captain W7
  caporal n.masc corporal W7
  chapitre n.masc chapter W7
  chevetain n.masc chieftain W7
  corporal n.masc corporal W7
French: cadet n.masc military cadet W7
  capital n.masc capital W7
  caprice n.masc caprice W7
  chapitre n chapter TLL
  chef n.masc leader, professional cook W7
  cheveu n hair TLL
Old Provençal: cap n.masc head W7
Old Italian: capo n.masc head W7
  caporale n.masc corporal W7
Italian: capello n hair TLL
  capitale adj chief, principal W7
  capitale n.masc capital, fund, stock W7
  capo n.masc head, chief W7
  capriccio n.masc fancy, caprice W7
Polish: hetman n hetman AHD
Ukrainian: het'man n hetman AHD
Sanskrit: kapā́la-m n cup, bowl; skull RPN
  kapúcchala-m n tuft of hair on back of head RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)
W9=Webster's Ninth New Collegiate Dictionary (1983)

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