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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: kau-l-, ku-l-   'hole, hollow; bone'

Semantic Fields: Hollow, Concave; Bone


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Middle Irish: cuaille n post GED
Old English: cāl n.masc cole, wild cole-wort W7/ASD
  hol adj/n.neut hollow; hole, den, cavern GED/ASD
  hola n.masc hole ASD
  *hol-bȳtla n.masc hole-builder LRC
  holc/holg/holh n.neut hole, hollow, cavity ASD
Middle English: cole n cole W7
  holh n hole, den W7
  holw adj hollow W7
English: cauliflower n garden plant AHD/W7
  cole n rape, herbaceous plant W7
  coleslaw n salad of raw cabbage W7
  Crickhollow prop.n Shire locale in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  gentlehobbit n noble/gentle hobbit in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  hobbit n halfling in Tolkien: The Hobbit, The Lord of the Rings LRC
  Holbytla prop.n a.k.a. hobbit in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  hole n opening into/through something W7
  Holfast prop.n hobbit in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  hollow adj/n sunken, concave; cavity W7
  Holman prop.n hobbit name in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  lockhole n hobbit lock-up in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Old Frisian: hol adj/n hollow; hole, cavity GED
Old Dutch: hol n hole, den, hollow, cavern ASD
Dutch: bloemkool n cauliflower TLL
  kool n cole, cabbage TLL
  koolsla n coleslaw, lit. cabbage salad W7
Old Saxon: kôl n cole, cabbage KSW
Middle Low German: hol adj/n hollow; hole, cavity GED
Old High German: hol adj/n hollow; hole, cavity GED
  holi n hole ASD
  kōl/kōlo/kōli n.masc cabbage KDW
German: Blumenkohl n cauliflower TLL
  hohl adj hollow ASD
  Höhle n hole ASD
  Kohl n cabbage TLL
Old Norse: holr adj hollow GED
Old Icelandic: hylr n.masc depression, deep place GED
Icelandic: hol n hole, den, hollow, cavern ASD
  hola n hole ASD
  holr adj hollow ASD
Danish: blomkaal n cauliflower TLL
  kaal n cole, cabbage TLL
Swedish: blomkål n cauliflower TLL
  kål n cole, cabbage TLL
Gothic: hulundi n cavern ASD
  *us-hulon vb.wk.II to hollow out IEW/GED
Latin: caulis/cōlis n.masc stem, stalk; penis GED
Italian: cabolfiore n.masc cauliflower W7
Old Prussian: kaulan n.acc bone GED
Lithuanian: káulas n.masc bone IEW/GED
Latvian: kaũls n bone; stem GED
Greek: καυλός n.masc stem, stalk; shaft GED
Sanskrit: kulyā́ n brook, ditch GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
II=class 2
acc=accusative (case)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
KDW=Gerhard Köbler: Althochdeutsches Wörterbuch, 4th ed. (1993)
KSW=Gerhard Köbler: Altsächsisches Wörterbuch, 3rd ed. (2000)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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